< Back

Final Communiqué of the Summit of the Frontline Heads of State and Government

11 December 1992, Harare

  1. The Summit of the Heads of State and Government of the Frontline States
    and the Representatives of the Liberation Movements met in Harare, Republic
    of Zimbabwe, 11th December 1992.
  2. Participating in the Summit were:

    1. His Excellency Mr. Robert G. Mugabe, President of the Republic of
    2. His Excellency Sir Ketumile Masire, President of the Republic of
    3. His Excellency Mr. All Hassan Mwinyi, President of the United Republic
      of Tanzania.
    4. His Excellency Mr. Joaqulm Chissano, President of the Republic of
    5. His Excellency Mr. Sam Nujoma, President of the Republic of Namibia.
    6. His Excellency Mr. Frederick J.T. Chiluba, President of the Republic
      of Zambia.
    7. H.E. Mr. Marcelino Moco, Prime Minister of the Republic of Angola.
    8. H.E. Dr. Salim A. Salim, Secretary General of the O.A.U.

  3. Also participating in the Summit were Mr. Nelson Mandela, President
    of the African National Congress (ANC) and Mr. Johnson Mlambo, First Deputy
    President of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC).
  4. The Summit listened to a comprehensive presentation of the prevailing
    situation in Angola since the conclusion of the United Nations supervised
    elections at the end of September 1992 by the Prime Minister of Angola, Mr.
    M. Moco. The Summit was told of renewed fighting in many parts of Angola
    and rising tensionbetween the national police and UNITA military units. In
    this regard, the Summitappealed to all parties to renew their commitment
    to the Bicesse Peace Accordswhich promised a return to normal life in Angola
    after the holding of electionswhich were considered by the international
    community as free and fair.
  5. The Summit expressed great disappointment and amazement at the attitude
    of the UNITA leadership towards the democratic process and the purpose of
    free elections. An appeal was directed to them, and, in particular, to Dr.
    Jonas Savimbi, to respect the democratic process and the wishes of the people
    of Angola. In this regard, the Summit strongly condemned the acts of violence
    which have been committed by UNITA`s armed forces in Angola.

UNITA should accept the election results unequivocally, and take
up their rightful places in the Parliament and the government of national
unity and national reconciliation which came into being on December, 4 1992.
President Eduardo Dos Santos was commended for appointing a broadly-based
government of national unity representing all sections of Angolan society.

  1. It was suggested that the United Nations contingent (UNRVEM) be
    enlarged and increased. The Summit supported the UN operations in Angola
    and expressed the hope that UNRVEM would be given adequate resources to complete
    its mandate.
  2. The Summit recalled the OAU Ad Hoc Committee on Southern Africa`s
    decision to send a high level delegation to Angola at its meeting in Gaborone
    on 15 October, 1992. It recommended that the Ad Hoc Committee delegation
    shouldexpeditiously proceed to Angola to support the ongoing process of peace
    andnational reconciliation in that country.
  3. The Summit viewed with growing suspicion the apparently renewed
    military activities of the South African Defence forces in southern Angola,
    and condemnedthe violations of the air space of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe,
    by SouthAfrican aircraft.

In view of these developments, and the reported purchases of
sophisticated fighter planes, the U.N. should be urged to continue enforcing
and supervising the arms embargo. The member-states observed the need for
regular consultation on security matters, and coordinating strategy.


  1. After receiving a report from President Joaquim Chissano of Mozambique,
    the Summit welcomed with great satisfaction the general peace agreement signed
    in Rome between the Government of the Republic of Mozambique and Renamo on
    the 4th October 1992, to end the 16 years of war in Mozambique.
  2. The Summit noted that the general peace agreement in Mozambique
    opened new prospects for national reconciliation and normalisation of life
    for all Mozambicans. In this connection, the Heads of State appealed to the
    International Community to assist Mozambique in implementing the general
    peaceagreement, in particular, in monitoring the ceasefire and electoral
    process.The Summit further appealed to the International Community to fully
    supportMozambique in its efforts to socially reintegrate demobilised military
    personnelfrom both sides, as well as war displaced Mozambicans and refugees,
    and in the national reconstruction programmes.
  3. Taking note of the situation of the preparedness of the U.N. to
    take up greater responsibility in supervising the peace process in Mozambique,
    the Summit advised and urged member-states to support this exercise, and
    takeany measures that may be recommended to assist fully in the implementation
    of the Rome Peace Accords.


  1. The Summit considered the presentations made by the Liberation
    Movements on the current situation in South Africa.

Once again, the Summit appealed for an end to violence which
threatens to derail the peace process and to stultify negotiations for a
new,democratic and non- racial constitution. All parties were urged to go
to thenegotiating table. The presentations of the Liberation Movements indicated
that the negotiations were entering a new and critical stage in 1993. The
Heads of State and Government pledged continued support to the Liberation
Movements until a new non-racial and democratic constitution is in place.

  1. The member states reiterated the importance of uniting all the
    organisations representing the oppressed masses in a broadly based Patriotic

The strength of the oppressed people lies in unity and
good leadership. Reference was made to the statement made by the OAU Ad Hoc
Committee on Southern Africa that all political parties in South Africa should
ensure that they all work for the formation of a common front which would
not permitthe minority regime to pit them against one another, thereby compromising
the interest of the suffering majority. The Summit also appealed to Liberation
Movements to work with all other representatives of the oppressed majority
who are also working for a democratic and non-racial South Africa.

  1. It was noted with grave concern that recently, the airspace
    of a number of the Frontline States were violated by aircraft of the South
    African defence establishment. The Summit underlined its fear that the region
    might, once again, be under the renewed threat of military destabilisation.
    The Heads of State and Government noted with grave concern the threats of
    cross- raids made recently by the S.A. Minister of Law and Order. It strongly
    condemned these threats and called on the international community to prevail
    on South Africa to desist from such policies, and also appealed for the continued
    observation of the arms embargo against South Africa.
  2. The Summit was of the view that the UN Security Council Resolution
    772 (1992) be fully implemented.
  3. The Summit noted the contribution of the OAU Observer Team
    towards the democratisation process in South Africa.


  1. The Summit also took time to deliberate on the horrendous
    situation in Somalia and it expressed its support for the United Nations
    Resolution on that suffering sister state. The Summit appealed to the factional
    and clanleaders to co-operate with the international community by allowing
    the unimpededdelivery o f relief assistance to reach all the starving people.
    In respondingto this appeal, the Summit noted that there was need to be sensitive
    to thenational pride of the Somali people which should not be trampled upon.
  2. The Summit of the Heads of State of the Frontline States expressed
    its appreciation and gratitude to H.E. Mr. R.G. Mugabe, the Government and
    people of the Republic of Zimbabwe for the warm welcome and traditional African
    hospitality as well as excellent facilities placed at the disposal of all
    delegations during their stay in Harare.