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Declarations and Resolutions of the Organization of African Unity, 1963-1994

Compiled and edited by E. S. Reddy


CONTENTS

Resolutions of African Conferences before the founding of the Organization of African Unity in 1963

Second Conference of Independent African States, Addis Ababa, 24 June 1960

Summit Conference of Independent African States, Addis Ababa, 22-25 May 1963

APARTHEID AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

Declarations and Resolutions of the Organization of African Unity adopted by its Assembly of Heads of State and Government and its Council of Ministers

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, First Ordinary Session, Cairo, 17-21 July 1964

APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA APARTHEID AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Second Ordinary Session, Accra, 21-25 October 1965

APARTHEID AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA

Fifth Summit Conference of East and Central African States, Lusaka, 14-16 April 1969

MANIFESTO ON SOUTHERN AFRICA (LUSAKA MANIFESTO)

Council of Ministers, Seventeenth Ordinary Session, Addis Ababa, 15 to 19 June 1971

DECLARATION ON THE QUESTION OF DIALOGUE WITH SOUTH AFRICA
RESOLUTION ON APARTHEID AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

Council of Ministers, Nineteenth Ordinary Session, Rabat, Morocco, 5-12 June 1972

RESOLUTION ON APARTHEID AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

Council of Ministers, Ninth Extraordinary Session, Dar es Salaam, 7 to 10 April 1975

DECLARATION ON SOUTHERN AFRICA

RESOLUTION ON SOUTH AFRICA

Council Of Ministers, Twenty-Fifth Ordinary Session, Kampala, Uganda, 18-25 July 1975

RESOLUTION ON SANCTIONS AGAINST THE WHITE MINORITY REGIMES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

RESOLUTION VII, "SOUTH AFRICA"

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Thirteenth Ordinary Session, Mauritius, 2-6 July 1976

RESOLUTION ON THE SECURITY OF COUNTRIES NEAREST TO THE SOUTHERN AFRICA BATTLEFIELD

Council of Ministers, Twenty-eighth Ordinary Session, Libreville, Gabon, 23 June-3 July 1977

RESOLUTION ON SPECIAL ASSISTANCE TO SOUTHERN AFRICAN REFUGEES
RESOLUTION ON WORLD CONFERENCE FOR ACTION AGAINST APARTHEID
RESOLUTION ON SANCTIONS
RESOLUTION ON SOUTH AFRICA
RESOLUTION ON SPORTING LINKS WITH SOUTH AFRICA
RESOLUTION ON MILITARY AND NUCLEAR COLLABORATION BETWEEN FRANCE, ISRAEL, JAPAN AND IN PARTICULAR THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY, AND APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA
RESOLUTION ON THE INTERNATIONAL ANTI-APARTHEID YEAR

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Fifteenth Ordinary Session, Khartoum, Democratic Republic of the Sudan, 18-22 July 1978

RESOLUTION TO OBSERVE THE DAY OF MARTYRS OF SOUTH AFRICA

Council of Ministers, Thirty-third Ordinary Session, Monrovia, Liberia, 6-19 July 1979

RESOLUTION ON THE DENUCLEARIZATION OF AFRICA
RESOLUTION ON OIL EMBARGO AGAINST SOUTHERN AFRICA
RESOLUTION ON THE APPLICATION OF SANCTIONS AGAINST THE RACIST AND MINORITY REGIMES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Nineteenth Ordinary Session, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 6-12 June 1983

RESOLUTION ON THE POLICY OF DESTABILIZATION BY RACIST SOUTH AFRICAN REGIME AGAINST SOUTHERN AFRICAN INDEPENDENT STATES
RESOLUTION ON SOUTH AFRICA

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Twentieth Ordinary Session, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 12-15 November 1984

DECLARATION ON SOUTHERN AFRICA RESOLUTION ON SOUTH AFRICA

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Twenty-second Ordinary Session, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 28-30 July 1986

STATEMENT ON THE CRITICAL SITUATION IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Twenty-third Ordinary Session, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 27-29 July 1987

DECLARATION ON SOUTHERN AFRICA

Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Southern Africa of the OAU, Harare, Zimbabwe, 21 August 1989

DECLARATION ON THE QUESTION OF SOUTH AFRICA (AND PROGRAMME OF ACTION)

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Twenty-second Ordinary Session, Abuja, Nigeria, 3-5 June 1991

ABUJA DECLARATION ON SOUTH AFRICA, 5 JUNE 1991

African Conferences before the founding of the Organization of African Unity in 1993

Second Conference of Independent African States, Addis Ababa, 24 June 1960

The Conference of Independent African States meeting in Addis Ababa,

Having learned with indignation of the death of many African political leaders in the prisons of the Union of South Africa, thus adding to the already long list of victims of the shameful policy of racial discrimination;

Recalling resolution No. 1375 (XIV), adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, condemning the policy of apartheid and racial discrimination practised by the Government of the Union of South Africa;

Recalling further the Security Council`s Resolution of April 1, 1960, recognizing the existence of a situation in South Africa which, if continued, might endanger international peace and security;

Reaffirming the declaration of Bandung and the resolutions adopted by the United Nations, the Government of the Union of South Africa still persists in its evil policy of apartheid and racial discrimination;

1. Desires to pay homage to all victims of the shameful policy of apartheid and racial discrimination;

2. Decides to assist the victims of racial discrimination and furnish them with all the means necessary to attain their political objectives of liberty and democracy;

3. Calls upon Member States to sever diplomatic relations or refrain from establishing diplomatic relations, as the case may be, to close African ports to all vessels flying the South African flag, to enact legislation prohibiting their ships from entering South African ports, to boycott all South African goods, to refuse landing and passage facilities to all aircraft belonging to the Government and companies registered under the laws of the Union of South Africa and to prohibit all South African aircraft from flying over the airspace of the Independent African States;

4. Invites the Arab States to approach all petroleum companies with a view to preventing Arab oil from being sold to the Union of South Africa and recommends that the African States refuse any concession to any company which continues to sell petroleum to the Union of South Africa;

5. Invites the Independent African States which are members of the British Commonwealth to take all possible steps to secure the exclusion of the Union of South Africa from the British Commonwealth;1

6. Recommends that appropriate measures be taken by the United Nations in accordance with Article 41 of the Charter2;

7. Appeals to world public opinion to persevere in the effort to put an end to the terrible situation caused by apartheid and racial discrimination;

8. Decides to instruct the Informal Permanent Machinery to take all steps necessary to secure that effect shall be given to the above recommendations and to furnish full information on cases of racial discrimination in the Union of South Africa, so that the outside world may be correctly informed about such practices.

Summit Conference of Independent African States, Addis Ababa, 22-25 May 19633

APARTHEID AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

The Summit Conference of Independent African States meeting in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 22 to 25 May 1963,

Having considered all aspects of the questions of apartheid and racial discrimination,

Unanimously convinced of the imperious and urgent necessity of co-ordinating and intensifying their efforts to put an end to the South African Government’s criminal policy of apartheid and wipe out racial discrimination in all its forms,

Have agreed unanimously to concert and co-ordinate their efforts and actions in this field, and to this end have decided on the following measures:

  1. To grant scholarships, educational facilities and possibilities of employment in African government services to refugees from South Africa;
  2. To support the recommendations presented to the Security Council and the General Assembly by the Special Committee of the United Nations on the apartheid policies of the South African Government4;
  3. To despatch a delegation of Foreign Ministers to inform the Security Council of the explosive situation existing in South Africa; (The Conference has decided the Members of the Delegation to be: Liberia, Tunisia, Madagascar and Sierra Leone);
  4. To co-ordinate concerted measures of sanction against the Government of South Africa;

1. Appeals to all States, and more particularly to those which have traditional relations and co-operate with the Government of South Africa, to apply strictly UN resolution 1761 (XVII) of 6 November 1962 concerning apartheid5;

2. Appeals to all governments who still have diplomatic, consular and economic relations with the Government of South Africa to break off those relations and to cease any other form of encouragement for the policy of apartheid;

3. Stresses the great responsibility incurred by the colonial authorities administering territories neighboring South Africa in the pursuit of the policy of apartheid;

4. Condemns racial discrimination in all its forms in Africa and all over the world;

5. Expresses the deep concern aroused in all African peoples and governments by the measures of racial discrimination taken against communities of African origin living outside the continent and particularly in the United States of America; Expresses appreciation for the efforts of the Federal Government of the United States of America to put an end to those intolerable malpractices which are likely seriously to deteriorate relations between the African peoples and governments on the one hand and the people and Government of the United States of America on the other.

Conferences after the establishment of the OAU in 1963

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, First Ordinary Session, Cairo, United Arab Republic, 17-21 July 1964

APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA6

The Assembly of Heads of State and Government meeting in its First Ordinary Session in Cairo, UAR, from 17 to 21 July 1964,

Recalling the resolution on apartheid and racial discrimination adopted by the Conference of Heads of State and Government in Addis Ababa in May 1963,

Having examined the Report of the Liberation Committee,

Having heard the report on the activities of the delegation of Ministers for Foreign Affairs instructed by the Conference of Heads of State and Government to explain and uphold the African position before the United Nations Security Council,7

Noting with grave concern the consistent refusal of the South African Government to give consideration to appeals made by every sector of world opinion and in particular the resolutions of the United Nations Security Council and General Assembly,

Noting in particular that, in view of the South African Government`s apparent decision to disregard all peaceful intervention attempting to bring about discontinuation of their policy of apartheid, sanctions of every nature being the only means available of achieving a peaceful solution to the explosive situation which prevails in South Africa:

1. Reaffirms that the position in South Africa represents a serious threat to peace and international security;

2. Condemns the South African Government whose policy, being incompatible with its political and moral obligations as a Member State of the United Nations, constitutes a grave danger to stability and peace in Africa and the world;

3. Approves and encourages the action of representatives of the Organization of African Unity within the various international bodies with a view to bringing about abolition of the policy apartheid and notes with pleasure the increasing support of a number of countries and institutions in favour of African demands in this respect;

4. Reiterates its appeal to all countries to apply in the strictest manner the economic, diplomatic, political and military sanctions already decided by the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council;

5. Appeals to the major commercial partners of the South African Government to discontinue the encouragement they are giving to the maintenance of apartheid by their investments and commercial relations with the Pretoria Government;

6. Decides to take the necessary steps to refuse any aeroplane or ship or any other means of communication going to or coming from South Africa the right to fly over the territories of Member States or utilize their ports or any other facilities.

APARTHEID AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION8

The Assembly of Heads of State and Government meeting in its First Ordinary Session in Cairo, UAR from 17 to 21 July 1964,

Recalling the resolution on Apartheid and Racial Discrimination adopted by the Conference of Heads of State and Government in Addis Ababa in May 1963,

Recalling further the resolutions on Apartheid and Racial Discrimination, CM/Res. 6(I) and CM/Res. 13(II) of the Council of Ministers,

Reaffirming in particular resolution CM/Res. 13 (II) adopted by the Council of Ministers at its Second Session in Lagos,

Having examined the Report of the Administrative Provisional Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity, (document CM/33), the Proceedings and Resolutions of the International Conference on Economic Sanctions against South Africa contained in the Provisional Secretary-General’s Report (document CM/27), the Report of the Foreign Ministers of Liberia, Madagascar, Sierra Leone and Tunisia, appointed by the Conference of Heads of State and Government in Addis Ababa in 1963 to represent OAU Member States at the Security Council, and the Report of the African Group at the United Nations,

Noting with great concern the consistent refusal of the Government of South Africa to give consideration to appeals made by every sector of world opinion as well as its non-compliance with the resolutions of the Security Council and the General Assembly of the United Nations,

Noting in particular that the attitude of certain States towards the Government of South Africa and their continued close relations with that Government only encourages it to persist in its policies of apartheid and contempt for the United Nations,

Convinced of the necessity of intensifying as a matter of urgency the action of the African States in regard to further the application of sanctions against the Government of South Africa,

Expressing its deep concern over the trials conducted according to the arbitrary and inhuman laws of the Government of South Africa to convict the opponents of apartheid,

Deeply distressed at the recent convictions of and sentences passed on African nationalists, particularly on Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu,

DECIDES:

1. To call for the release of Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Mangaliso Sobukwe and all other Nationalists, imprisoned or detained under the arbitrary laws of South Africa;

2. To extend the mandate of the Foreign Ministers of Liberia, Madagascar, Sierra Leone and Tunisia, commissioned by the Conference of Heads of State and Government in Addis Ababa, in May 1963, to continue their representation on behalf of all OAU Member States at the deliberations of the Security Council;

3. To appeal to all oil producing countries to cease as a matter of urgency their supply of oil and petroleum products to South Africa;

4. To call on all African States to implement forthwith the decision taken in Addis Ababa, in May 1963, to boycott South African goods and to cease the supply of minerals and other raw materials to South Africa;

5. To request the co-operation of all countries and in particular that of the major trading partners of South Africa in the boycott of South African goods;

6. To establish a machinery within the OAU General Secretariat, which will be entrusted inter alia, with the following functions:

  1. to plan co-ordination of sanctions against South Africa among the Member States, and to ensure the strictest implementation of all relevant resolutions of the OAU;
  2. to harmonize co-operation with friendly States with a view to implementing an effective boycott of South Africa;
  3. to collect and disseminate information about governmental and private financial, economic and commercial institutions, which trade with South Africa;
  4. to promote, in co-operation with other international bodies, the campaign for international economic sanctions against South Africa by all appropriate means, in particular by countering the propaganda and pressures of the South Africa Government.

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Second Ordinary Session, Accra, 21-25 October 1965

APARTHEID AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA9

The Assembly of Heads of State and Government meeting in its Second Ordinary Session in Accra, Ghana, from 21 to 25 October 1965,

Recalling the resolution adopted on 25 May 1963 by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government, resolutions AHG/Res.5(I) and AHG/Res.6(I) of July 1964, as well as resolution CM/Res. 48(IV) of March 1965, on the problem of apartheid and racial discrimination,

Considering the report of the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Liberia, Madagascar, Sierra Leone and Tunisia, who had been requested by the Conference of Heads of State and Government in Addis Ababa in May 1963 to speak on behalf of all African States at the meetings of the Security Council held to discuss the question of apartheid and racial discrimination in the Republic of South Africa, and whose mandate was extended by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government meeting in its First Ordinary Session in Cairo in July 1964,

Taking note of the reports of the United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa (United Nations documents A/5932 and A/5957),

Noting the measures taken by other states in implementation of the resolutions of the Untied Nations and of the Organization of African Unity in order to bring about the abandonment of the policy of apartheid,

Considering that the situation in the Republic of South Africa is constantly deteriorating and constitutes an ever-increasing threat to international peace and security,

Gravely concerned at the increasing collaboration of the South African Government with the Government of Portugal as well as with the minority authorities in Southern Rhodesia, to prevent the liberation of Southern Africa from colonialism and racism,

Considering that the continued collaboration by various powers with the South African Government in the economic, political and military fields, and their opposition to economic sanctions against South Africa, are encouraging the South African Government to continue its dangerous policy,

Convinced that effective and prompt international action is imperative in order to resolve the situation in South Africa in accordance with the purposes and principles of the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity and to avert the grave danger of violent conflict, which is bound to have world-wide repercussions,

1. Reaffirms the decisions taken by the Organization of African Unity on the question of apartheid and racial discrimination;

2. Approves the recommendations of the United Nations Special Committee on the Policies of Apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa and invites the Security Council and the General Assembly of the United Nations to adopt these recommendations;

3. Expresses its appreciation to the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Liberia, Madagascar, Sierra Leone and Tunisia;

4. Urgently calls on all States to institute a strict embargo on the supply of arms, ammunition and other material for use by military and police forces in South Africa; in particular, calls on the French Government to abide by the resolutions of the United Nations Security Council and forthwith cease supply of military equipment to South Africa, and calls on other States that have announced arms embargoes to implement them strictly without exceptions or restrictive interpretations;

5. Launches a special appeal to the major trading partners of the Republic of South Africa – particularly the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France – to discontinue their growing economic collaboration with the South African Government, since such collaboration encourages it to defy world opinion and to accelerate the implementation of the policy of apartheid;

6. Calls on the Security Council and the General Assembly of the United Nations to recognize the present situation in South Africa as a serious threat to international peace and security, to institute effective economic sanctions against South Africa and to assist the victims of apartheid and repression;

7. Decides to take steps to promote the election to the Security Council of States which support effective action on this problem;

8. Calls on the Specialized Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations to take energetic measures, within their respective fields of competence, to compel South Africa to abandon its policies of apartheid;

9. Instructs the Administrative Secretary-General:

  1. To review the implementation of economic sanctions against South Africa by Member States of the Organization of African Unity and other states;
  2. To make recommendations on the implementation of all relevant resolutions of the Organization of African Unity and in particular resolutions AHG/Res.5(I) and AHG/Res.6(I), by the member Sates of the Organization of African Unity;
  3. To recommend measures to persuade other States to cease collaboration with the Government of the Republic of South Africa;

10. Invites the South African liberation movements to concert their policies and actions and intensify the struggle for full equality, and appeals to all States to lend moral and material assistance to the liberation movements in their struggle;

11. Requests the African Group at the Untied Nations to take appropriate steps to secure effective action by United Nations organs in the light of the present resolution;

12. Requests the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Liberia, Madagascar, Sierra Leone and Tunisia and the African Group at the United Nations to continue their efforts on the Security Council in implementation of their terms of reference.

Fifth Summit Conference of East and Central African States, Lusaka, 14-16 April 1969

MANIFESTO ON SOUTHERN AFRICA (LUSAKA MANIFESTO)10

1. When the purpose and the basis of States` international policies are misunderstood, there is introduced into the world a new and unnecessary disharmony, disagreements, conflicts of interest, or different assessments of human priorities, which provoke an excess of tension in the world, and disastrously divide mankind, at a time when united action is necessary to control modern technology and put it to the service of man. It is for this reason that, discovering widespread misapprehension of our attitudes and purposes in relation to Southern Africa, we the leaders of East and Central African States meeting at Lusaka, 16th April 1969, have agreed to issue this Manifesto.

2. By this Manifesto we wish to make clear, beyond all shadow of doubt, our acceptance of the belief that all men are equal, and have equal rights to human dignity and respect, regardless of colour, race, religion or sex. We believe that all men have the right and the duty to participate, as equal members of the society, in their own government. We do not accept that any individual or group has any right to govern any other group of sane adults, without their consent, and we affirm that only the people of a society, acting together as equals, can determine what is, for them, a good society and a good social, economic, or political organization.

3. On the basis of these beliefs we do not accept that any one group within a society has the right to rule any society without the continuing consent of all the citizens. We recognize that at any one time there will be, within every society, failures in the implementation of these ideals. We recognize that for the sake of order in human affairs, there may be transitional arrangements while a transformation from group inequalities to individual equality is being effected. But we affirm that without an acceptance of these ideals - without a commitment to these principles of human equality and self-determination - there can be no basis for peace and justice in the world.

4. None of us would claim that within our own States we have achieved that perfect social, economic and political organization which would ensure a reasonable standard of living for all our people and establish individual security against avoidable hardship or miscarriage of justice. On the contrary, we acknowledge that within our own States the struggle towards human brotherhood and unchallenged human dignity is only beginning. It is on the basis of our commitment to human equality and human dignity, not on the basis of achieved perfection, that we take our stand of hostility towards the colonialism and racial discrimination which is being practised in Southern Africa. It is on the basis of our commitment to these universal principles that we appeal to other members of the human race for support.

5. If the commitment to these principles existed among the States holding power in Southern Africa, any disagreements we might have about the rate of implementation, or about isolated acts of policy, would be matters affecting only our individual relationships with the States concerned. If these commitments existed, our States would not be justified in the expressed and active hostility towards the regimes of Southern Africa such as we have proclaimed and continue to propagate.

6. The truth is, however, that in Mozambique, Angola, Rhodesia, South-West Africa, and the Union of South Africa, there is an open and continued denial of the principles of human equality and national self-determination. This is not a matter of failure in the implementation of accepted human principles. The effective Administrations in all these territories are not struggling towards these difficult goals. They are fighting the principles; they are deliberately organizing their societies so as to try to destroy the hold of these principles in the minds of men. It is for this reason that we believe the rest of the world must be interested. For the principle of human equality, and all that flows from it, is either universal or it does not exist. The dignity of all men is destroyed when the manhood of any human being is denied.

7. Our objectives in Southern Africa stem from our commitment to this principle of human equality. We are not hostile to the Administrations of these States because they are manned and controlled by white people. We are hostile to them because they are systems of minority control which exist as a result of, and in the pursuance of, doctrines of human inequality. What we are working for is the right of self-determination for the people of those territories. We are working for a rule in those countries which is based on the will of all the people, and an acceptance of the equality of every citizen.

8. Our stand towards Southern Africa thus involves a rejection of racialism, not a reversal of the existing racial domination. We believe that all the peoples who have made their homes in the countries of Southern Africa are Africans, regardless of the colour of their skins; and we would oppose a racialist majority government which adopted a philosophy of deliberate and permanent discrimination between its citizens on grounds of racial origin. We are not talking racialism when we reject the colonialism and apartheid policies now operating in those areas; we are demanding an opportunity for all the people of these States, working together as equal individual citizens, to work out for themselves the institutions and the system of government under which they will, by general consent, live together and work together to build a harmonious society.

9. As an aftermath of the present policies it is likely that different groups within these societies will be self-conscious and fearful. The initial political and economic organizations may well take account of these fears, and this group self-consciousness. But how this is to be done must be a mater exclusively for the peoples of the country concerned, working together. No other nation will have a right to interfere in such affairs. All that the rest of the world has a right to demand is just what we are now asserting - that the arrangements within any State which wishes to be accepted into the community of nations must be based on an acceptance of the principles of human dignity and equality.

10. To talk of the liberation of Africa is thus to say two things. First, that the people in the territories still under colonial rule shall be free to determine for themselves their own institutions of self-government. Secondly, that the individuals in Southern Africa shall be freed from an environment posed by the propaganda of racialism, and given an opportunity to be men - not white men, brown men, yellow men, or black men.

11. Thus the liberation of Africa - for which we are struggling - does not mean a reverse racialism. ...

12. On the objective of liberation as thus defined, we can neither surrender nor compromise. We have always preferred, and we still prefer, to achieve it without physical violence. We would prefer to negotiate rather than destroy, to talk rather than kill. We do not advocate violence; we advocate an end to the violence against human dignity which is now being perpetrated by the oppressors of Africa. If peaceful progress to emancipation were possible, or if changed circumstances were to make it possible in the future, we would urge our brothers in the resistance movements to use peaceful methods of struggle even at the cost of some compromise on the timing of change. But while peaceful progress is blocked by actions of those at present in power in the States of Southern Africa, we have no choice but to give to the peoples of those territories all the support of which we are capable in their struggle against their oppressors. This is why the signatory states participate in the movement for the liberation of Africa under the aegis of the Organization of African Unity. However, the obstacle to change is not the same in all the countries of Southern Africa, and it follows therefore, that the possibility of continuing the struggle through peaceful means varies from one country to another. ...

The Union of South Africa is itself an independent sovereign State and a Member of the United Nations. It is more highly developed and richer than any other nation in Africa. On every legal basis its internal affairs are a matter exclusively for the people of South Africa. Yet the purpose of law is people and we assert that the actions of the South African Government are such that the rest of the world has a responsibility to take some action in defence of humanity.

There is one thing about South African oppression which distinguishes it from other oppressive regimes. The apartheid policy adopted by its Government, and supported to a greater or lesser extent by almost all its white citizens, is based on a rejection of man`s humanity. A position of privilege or the experience of oppression in the South African society depends on the one thing which it is beyond the power of any man to change. It depends upon a man`s colour, his parentage, and his ancestors. If you are black you cannot escape this categorization; nor can you escape it if you are white. If you are black millionaire and a brilliant political scientist, you are still subject to the pass laws and still excluded from political activity. If you are white, even protests against the system and an attempt to reject segregation, will lead you only to the segregation, and the comparative comfort of a white jail. Beliefs, abilities, and behaviour are all irrelevant to a man`s status; everything depends upon race. Manhood is irrelevant. The whole system of government and society in South Africa is based on the denial of human equality. And the system is maintained by a ruthless denial of the human rights of the majority of the population - and thus, inevitably of all.

These things are known and are regularly condemned in the Councils of the United Nations and elsewhere. But it appears that to many countries international law takes precedence over humanity. Therefore no action follows the words. Yet even if international law is held to exclude active assistance to the South African opponents of apartheid, it does not demand that the comfort and support of human and commercial intercourse should be given to a government which rejects the manhood of most humanity. South Africa should be excluded from the United Nations` Agencies, and even from the United Nations itself. It should be isolated from world trade patterns and left to be self-sufficient, if it can. The South African Government cannot be allowed both to reject the very concept of mankind`s unity, and to benefit by the strength given through friendly international relations. And certainly Africa cannot acquiesce in the maintenance of the present policies against people of African descent.

The signatories of this Manifesto assert that the validity of the principles of human equality and dignity extend to the Union of South Africa just as they extend to the colonial territories of Southern Africa. Before a basis for peaceful development can be established in this continent, these principles must be acknowledged by every action, and in every state there must be a deliberate attempt to implement them.

We reaffirm our commitment to these principles of human equality and human dignity, and to the doctrines of self-determination and non-racialism. We shall work for their extension within our own nations and throughout the continent of Africa.

Council of Ministers, Seventeenth Ordinary Session, Addis Ababa, 15 to 19 June 1971

DECLARATION ON THE QUESTION OF DIALOGUE WITH SOUTH AFRICA11

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Seventeenth Ordinary Session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 15 to 19 June 1971, discussed in an atmosphere of utmost cordiality and frankness the question of a proposal for a dialogue with the minority racist regime of South Africa.

The discussions afforded all Members of the Council an opportunity to fully express the views of their respective Governments on this important question.

The Council reaffirmed:

(1) their total commitment to the principles and purposes contained in Articles II and III of the Charter of the Organization of African Unity, especially in regard to the eradication of all forms of colonialism from Africa, and the absolute dedication to the total emancipation of the African territories which are still dependent;

(2) that the Manifesto on Southern Africa (Lusaka Manifesto), unanimously adopted by the Organization of African Unity and endorsed by the United Nations and the Conference of Non-Aligned States, but rejected by the racist regimes of southern Africa, is the only objective basis for any meaningful solution to the problems of apartheid, racial discrimination and colonialism in Africa;

(3) the legitimacy of the struggle being waged by the peoples of Africa to obtain their legitimate rights to independence, freedom, human dignity and equality, and that all Member States of the Organization of African Unity remain totally and unconditionally committed to their struggle.

Moreover, it was agreed that no Member State of the Organization of African Unity would initiate or engage in any type of action that would undermine or abrogate the solemn obligations and undertakings to the commitments contained in the Charter.

It was also agreed that any action to be taken by Member States in regard to the solution of the problems of colonialism, racial discrimination and apartheid in Africa, must be undertaken within the framework of the Organization of African Unity and in full consultation with the liberation movements of the territories concerned.

The Council rejected the idea of any dialogue with the minority racist regime of South Africa which is not designed solely to obtain for the enslaved people of South Africa their legitimate and inherent rights and the elimination of apartheid in accordance with the Lusaka Manifesto.

The Council of Ministers also considered and agreed that in any case any form of dialogue should appropriately be commenced only between the minority racist regime of South Africa and the people they are oppressing, exploiting and suppressing.

The Council of Ministers also agreed that the proposal for a dialogue between the independent African States and the racist minority regime of South Africa is a manoeuvre by that regime and its allies to divide African States, confuse world public opinion, relieve South Africa from international ostracism and isolation and obtain an acceptance of the status quo in southern Africa.

In view of the above considerations, the Seventeenth Ordinary Session of the Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity emphatically declares that there exists no basis for a meaningful dialogue with the minority racist regime of South Africa. Under these circumstances, the Council reaffirms its determination to continue to render and increase its assistance to the liberation movements until victory is achieved.

RESOLUTION ON APARTHEID AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Seventeenth Ordinary Session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 15 to 19 June 1971,

Taking note of the report of the Administrative Secretary-General in documents CM/380 and C1/380/Part I/Add. I and II,

Noting with grave concern that the African people of South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe continue to be subjected to humiliation, exploitation and genocide under the regime of apartheid which constitutes a crime against humanity,

Gravely concerned over the continued detention and torture of opponents of apartheid under the notorious "Terrorism Act",

Taking note of the intensification of the deceitful propaganda and manoeuvres by the South African racist authorities concerning their so-called "outward policy",

Considering that this policy is designed to overcome isolation, build a southern African bloc under its hegemony and divide African States,

Noting the continued increase in the military budget of South Africa, and the growing support by South Africa to minority colonial regimes in Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Angola,

Noting with grave concern that several countries, in particular Member States of NATO, continue to provide military and other assistance to the South African authorities, and that foreign investment in South Africa from these countries, as well as from Japan, has greatly increased,

Taking note with satisfaction of the growing opposition to apartheid by world public opinion and the increasing support to the liberation struggle by anti-apartheid movements and by church, trade union, student and other groups around the world,

1. Reaffirms its full and unconditional support to the oppressed people of South Africa in their legitimate struggle to eliminate apartheid and achieve majority rule;

2. Rejects and denounces the deceitful propaganda and manoeuvres of the South African authorities in promoting their so-called "outward policy";

3. Condemns the main investors as well as trading partners of South Africa for encouraging and assisting the South African authorities in their oppression of the African people;

4. Strongly condemns all the Powers, particularly France and the United Kingdom, for continuing to supply the Pretoria regime with arms in violation of the resolutions of the Security Council;

5. Commends the activities of all anti-apartheid movements and of all church, trade union, student and other groups which support the legitimate struggle of the oppressed peoples of southern African countries and boycott South African racists;

6. Expresses its appreciation to the United Nations, anti-apartheid movements and other groups for their activities in acquainting the world opinion with the inhumanity of apartheid and the legitimate struggle of the liberation movements, and appeals for continued efforts in this respect;

7. Appeals to all friendly Governments, organizations and individuals to extend greater moral, political, humanitarian and material support to the liberation struggle of the peoples of South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe in co-operation with the OAU;

8. Calls for world-wide campaigns:

  1. for the cessation of all military co-operation with South Africa;
  2. for the boycott of South Africa in economic, cultural, sports and other fields;
  3. for the ending of torture in South African prisons and the release of all political prisoners;
  4. to apply to freedom fighters the relevant articles of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 on the treatment of prisoners of war and to ensure participation of liberation movements in the drafting and application of international humanitarian law applicable to the so-called internal conflict;
  5. for appropriate action against companies investing in South Africa; and
  6. for prohibiting emigration of persons, especially skilled workers, to South Africa;

9. Requests the African Group at the United Nations to continue to challenge the credentials of the South African delegation;

10. Requests the OAU Bureau of Sanctions and Decolonization to publicize constantly all evidence of collaboration by Governments and economic and financial interests with South Africa.

Council of Ministers, Nineteenth Ordinary Session, Rabat, Morocco, 5-12 June 1972

RESOLUTION ON APARTHEID AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION12

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Nineteenth Ordinary Session in Rabat, Morocco, from 5 to 12 June 1972,

Noting with deep concern that the African people of South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe are still subjected to exploitation, humiliation and persecution by the racist regimes of Pretoria and Salisbury because of their policies of apartheid and racial discrimination,

Reaffirming the inalienable right of the people of these territories to self-determination and independence,

Considering that the policies and practices of apartheid against the African people constitute a crime against humanity,

Considering that the policy of South Africa which aims at breaking its isolation and at consolidating the minority racist regimes in southern Africa, calls for vigilance and vigorous action by Member States,

Noting with deep concern that several countries, in particular the NATO member countries, continue to supply military and other assistance to the South African authorities and that the investments and trade of these countries and Japan with South Africa have increased considerably, in violation of their United Nations Charter obligations,

Recognizing that the extensive arms build-up of the military forces of South Africa and the means to manufacture armaments by South Africa enable the South African authorities to continue with their oppressive measures against the non-white people of that territory and pose a real threat to the security and sovereignty of independent African States,

Recognizing further that the provision of arms by States to South Africa not only increases tensions and endangers international peace and security, in violation of obligations assumed under the United Nations Charter, but also increases this regime`s aggressive potential aimed at the recolonization of the African continent,

Noting with satisfaction the growing opposition in South Africa, as well as in many parts of the world, to the odious practices of racial discrimination pursued by the South African regime,

Paying tribute to the liberation struggle being waged by the African people in South Africa to regain their freedom and national independence,

Considering that the establishment of Bantustans and other measures adopted by the Government of South Africa in pursuance of apartheid are designed to consolidate and perpetuate domination by a white minority and the dispossession and exploitation of the African and other non-white people of South Africa, as well as of Namibia,

1. Condemns the establishment by the Government of South Africa of Bantu homelands (Bantustans) and the forcible removal of the African people of South Africa and Namibia to those areas as a violation of their inalienable rights, contrary to the principle of self-determination and prejudicial to the territorial integrity of the countries and unity of their peoples;

2. Reaffirms the inalienable right of the African people of South Africa to self-determination and national independence within the framework of territorial integrity and national unity;

3. Reiterates its full and unconditional support for the oppressed people of South Africa in its armed struggle to put an end to the policy of apartheid and realize its profound. and legitimate aspirations;

4. Invites Member States to increase substantially moral, financial and material aid to the liberation movements in southern Africa so as to hasten the elimination of the colonial and racist system in that part of the continent;

5. Rejects the machinations by the South African authorities to break African solidarity and isolate the liberation movements through the so-called "outward-looking and dialogue policies";

6. Strongly condemns those States of the NATO alliance, in particular France, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany, which continue to provide arms or the means to manufacture arms to the Pretoria regime, in violation of United Nations Security Council resolutions;

7. Rejects the assertion that the Security Council arms embargo against South Africa makes a distinction between arms for external defence and arms for internal repression;

8. Declares that those States which supply arms to South Africa or means to manufacture arms are hostile to the aspirations of the African people of South Africa for freedom, equality and justice;

9. Places prime responsibility on those countries which continue to invest in and trade with South Africa for the continued oppression, exploitation and domination of the African people of that country through the encouragement and material assistance they are providing to racist regimes;

10. Commends the activities of anti-apartheid movements, trade unions, student organizations, religious and other groupings which support the legitimate struggle of the oppressed peoples of southern Africa and invites them to intensify their efforts in this respect;

11. Calls upon all governments, organizations and individuals to give more substantial moral, political, humanitarian and material support to the liberation struggle of the peoples of South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe directly to the liberation movements or through the OAU;

12. Calls upon all Member States to exert pressure on foreign companies operating in their territories which are either subsidiaries or associated with companies operating in South Africa to withdraw from that country;

13. Reaffirms the measures advocated in resolution CM/Res.242 (XVII) which are by means of world-wide campaigns designed to:

  1. ensure the discontinuation of all military assistance to and co-operation with South Africa;
  2. boycott South Africa in the economic, cultural, sport and other fields;
  3. put a stop to torture in prisons and obtain the release of all political prisoners, who include such outstanding patriots as Mandela, Sisulu, Mbeki, Kathrada and Fischer, and lift restrictions on ex-political prisoners including Sobukwe;
  4. ensure that the freedom fighters enjoy the benefits of the provisions of the Geneva Conventions on prisoners of war and ensure participation of liberation movements in the drafting and application of international humanitarian law applicable to conflicts described as internal;
  5. take appropriate measures against companies investing in South Africa;
  6. prohibit emigration to South Africa, especially of skilled workers.
Council of Ministers, Ninth Extraordinary Session, Dar es Salaam, 7-10 April 197513

DECLARATION ON SOUTHERN AFRICA

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Ninth Extraordinary Session in Dar es Salaam from 7 to 10 April 1975, has made an in-depth study of the developments in southern Africa in general and the situation in South Africa in particular. This evaluation was made with the specific objective of devising ways and means of realizing free Africa`s long cherished objective in the region, namely, the total liquidation of the twin evils of colonialism and racism.

Though the OAU`s position on these problems has repeatedly been made clear, the fast changing events in southern Africa make it imperative for the OAU to re-examine its strategy. Such reassessment is particularly crucial in the light of deliberate and calculated attempts by Africa`s enemies to sow seeds of confusion among our ranks, by employing diversionary tactics with the view of undermining OAU`s stand. It is, therefore, to the re-examination of the OAU`s strategy for the liberation of Zimbabwe and Namibia, as well as the abolition of the inhuman system of apartheid in South Africa, that the Ministers have devoted their Extraordinary Session in Dar es Salaam. And they accordingly declare as follows:

The decisive defeat of Portuguese colonialism by the African liberation movements and the imminent independence of Mozambique and Angola have radically altered the balance of forces in southern Africa. The resultant fatal blow inflicted on the "Unholy Alliance" of the Government in Pretoria with the Smith regime and Portuguese colonialists has seriously undermined the geopolitical position of the South African regime. Freedom has come to the borders of South Africa and Namibia with the independence of Mozambique and Angola respectively. The buffer zones for the consolidation of colonialism and racism have ultimately crumbled.

Vorster`s Government is faced with intensified international isolation as demonstrated by the decision of the United Nations General Assembly to bar the South African delegation from taking part in the proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Session.

Recognizing that the liberation of Angola and Mozambique brings with it a radical change in the geography of the African freedom struggle resulting in the intensification of the struggle against colonialism in Rhodesia and Namibia, South Africa has been forced to review its policies towards its client state of Zimbabwe and Namibia. The apartheid regime of Vorster is, therefore, now engaged in new manoeuvres in an attempt to reduce, if not neutralize, the impact of the revolutionary changes that have taken place in the region. It is desperately attempting to break its isolation and to undermine international opposition to its illegal occupation of Namibia. South Africa is trying to camouflage the reality of the obnoxious system of racial oppression in South Africa by resorting to such highly orchestrated propaganda on the removal of "petty apartheid". The aim of Vorster`s Government in this exercise of white-washing apartheid is clear: to deceive world public opinion into believing that some radical changes are taking place in the Republic of South Africa and thus reduce the regime`s international isolation.

The OAUs full commitment to the objective of total liberation of the continent is unequivocal and unquestionable. There can never be any surrender or compromise on this goal. But the development in southern Africa necessitates that the OAU re-evaluate its approach for the purpose of achieving the desired goal. Such a re-examination becomes all the more urgent by the evidence of new tactics on the part of Vorster`s regime in South Africa.

Above all, it is of the utmost importance that such a reassessment should have as its important prerequisite the maintenance and strengthening of unity and solidarity of Africa in confronting the new situation in southern Africa. The enemies of independent Africa realize that this unity is the most powerful weapon in the continent`s arsenal. It is that unity and solidarity which Vorster, with his collaborators and supporters, is attempting to undermine. Therefore Africa`s urgent need to close its ranks in facing South Africa`s new tactics becomes self-evident.

There are two main areas of conflict in southern Africa. The first is the confrontation with colonialism. The second is the conflict with the system of apartheid which has rightly been declared by the United Nations as a crime against humanity. But whether we are dealing with the struggle against colonialism in Rhodesia or illegal occupation of Namibia or racist domination in South Africa, the main opponent of Africa is the same: the South African regime and the power it wields in the three areas. Thus the southern African problem is firstly South Africa as a colonialist power, and secondly South Africa as a racist society.

The OAU`s objectives in Rhodesia, Namibia and South Africa have never changed. These objectives flow from the OAU`s commitment to achieve the total independence on the basis of majority rule with respect to the two colonial territories. Concerning South Africa, the objective has been, and still is, the ending of apartheid and the total elimination of racial discrimination. While the strategies and tactics in the attainment of this objective may change from one situation to another and from time to time, the objective itself is constant and non-negotiable.

Africans cannot and will never acquiesce in the perpetuation of colonial and/or racist oppression in their continent. That is why any talk of detente with the apartheid regime is such nonsense that it should be treated with the contempt it deserves. What the OAU demands is the dismantling of the institutions of oppression and repression against the non-white people by the racist minority. Otherwise, Vorster`s outcries about detente can only have one meaning in so far as the situation within South Africa is concerned. And this is that free and independent Africa should co-exist with apartheid and thus acquiesce in the daily humiliation, degradation, oppression and repression of the African people in South Africa.

Africa has on many occasions declared its desire and willingness to promote peaceful settlement to the problems of southern Africa including that of South Africa. The liberation movements themselves have a long history of non-violent struggle. It is only the obduracy, intransigence and recalcitrance of the colonialist and racist regimes that forced them to resort to the armed struggle. Yet even at the eleventh hour, Africa proclaimed the Lusaka Manifesto in order to seek once again a possible solution. That Manifesto was unambiguous in asserting the OAU`s preference to achieve freedom and human dignity for our continent by peaceful means. But the OAU has also made it clear that if peaceful progress towards its objectives is blocked, the OAU will support the armed struggle carried out by the peoples of the oppressed areas. This remains the unshakeable position of the OAU States as clearly defined by the Mogadiscio Declaration.

OAU`s strategy against colonialism

In recent years the OAU has adopted and carried out several strategies against colonialism. When in 1969 the racist and colonial regimes ignored the Lusaka Manifesto, the OAU States adopted the Mogadiscio Declaration in 1971 calling for the intensification of the armed struggle. This was followed by the Accra Strategy of 1973 concentrating on the liberation of the Portuguese colonies. The victory over Portuguese colonialism which vindicated the Accra Strategy led Africa, this year, to adopt the Dar-es-Salaam Declaration by which the OAU has resolved to take advantage of the victories achieved by the freedom fighters of Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde, Sao Tome and Principe for the advance of the freedom march further south with particular emphasis on the liberation of Zimbabwe and Namibia. The Extraordinary Session of the Council of Ministers, while unequivocally reaffirming this Declaration, wishes to highlight the following:

The process of decolonization has gained such momentum as to make it irreversible. The new situation now requires the OAU to retain the initiative in its own hands and intensify, not relax, the pressures on South Africa`s apartheid regime which is now operating from a position of declining strength.

In South Africa lies the key to the complete decolonization of southern Africa. Therefore, the problem of the liberation of southern Africa must be examined within the context of a comprehensive strategy for the total liberation of the area, whilst recognizing that the specific factors in the three territories concerned - Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa - make the liberation movements adopt different tactics.

A. Zimbabwe

The OAU`s objective in Zimbabwe is independence on the basis of majority rule. This can be achieved either peacefully or by violent means. Either way, Africa will lend its total support to the freedom fighters led by their nationalist movement - the African National Council (ANC). As long as the objective of majority rule before independence is not compromised, the OAU would support all efforts made by the Zimbabwe nationalists to win independence by peaceful means. This may mean the holding of a Constitutional Conference where the nationalist forces will negotiate with the Smith regime. If that takes place, the OAU has the duty to do every thing possible to assist the success of such negotiations, in constant consultation with the nationalists until and unless the Zimbabwean nationalists themselves are convinced that talks with Smith have failed. In this event, the freedom fighters will have to intensify the armed struggle with the material, financial and diplomatic assistance of independent Africa.

In considering the objectives of the OAU in Zimbabwe, it is important to properly evaluate the role of South Africa in that territory. South Africa has troops in Zimbabwe which help to maintain white minority rule. South Africa has frustrated the efforts of the international community by being the major sanctions buster. Both in its military and economic support of the Smith regime, South Africa continues to defy opposition from independent Africa and the United Nations. The apartheid regime must forthwith withdraw its military, political and economic support to the minority regime.

While the OAU accepts the task of helping in genuine negotiations in order to facilitate the transfer of power to the African majority, it must remain absolutely vigilant and undertake the necessary preparations for the intensification of the armed struggle, should peaceful solution to the Zimbabwe conflict be blocked.

The Council of Ministers expressed its appreciation of the declaration by the ANC on the need for strengthening unity amongst the people of Zimbabwe as the most powerful weapon in their armoury in the struggle for immediate majority rule, and urges them to continue with vigilance, employing the double strategy of full preparedness for intensifying the armed struggle while at the same time exploring the possibilities for peaceful change.

B. Namibia

The position of Africa and the United Nations on the question of Namibia is unequivocal. South Africa`s continued occupation of that land is illegal and all Member States of the United Nations are under obligation to refrain from doing anything which implies the legality of its administration. Africa must fulfill strictly this obligation to abstain from any action which may be construed as recognition or acceptance of South Africa`s right to be in Namibia.

The OAU and the United Nations hold the unity and territorial integrity of Namibia sacrosanct. Both organizations are working for the independence of the territory as a whole and are totally opposed to its fragmentation. Both organizations recognize SWAPO as the legitimate and authentic representative of the Namibian people. Despite the specific and unanimous demand of the Security Council, South Africa has not yet accepted withdrawing from Namibia. In fact, the apartheid regime has consolidated its repressive rule in the territory and proceeded with its bantustanization.

The Ninth Extraordinary Session of the Council of Ministers reiterates its conviction that the only possible solution to the problem of Namibia lies in the implementation by South Africa of Security Council resolution 336 of 17 December 1974. The African States considering that the Security Council by its own decision, is scheduled to convene on or about the 30 May 1975 to consider the question of Namibia, call upon the Council to take the necessary measures including those envisaged under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter with a view to effectively overcome South Africa`s defiance and contempt of the United Nations decisions. In the absence of South Africa`s willingness to terminate its illegal occupation of Namibia, the OAU must assist the national liberation movement of Namibia, SWAPO, to intensify the armed struggle in Namibia. SWAPO should also be supported in every way possible.

C. The OAU strategy on apartheid

As regards South Africa, both the OAU and the United Nations are dedicated to the principle of full equality for all the people of the country, irrespective of race or colour. It is impossible for free Africa to acquiesce in the denial of human equality and national self-determination.

The OAU has repeatedly warned that the apartheid regime constitutes a serious threat to international peace and security. This threat assumes graver proportions as the apartheid regime feels insecure. Despite Vorster`s claims at the end of last year that given six months or so the world would be surprised by the changes that would be initiated from within the apartheid republic, the situation has taken a turn for the worse as evidenced by the mass trial of students, the consolidation and strengthening of the "Bantustans" and the vast increase of South Africa`s military budget. Clearly, Vorster`s regime is not about to depart from the doctrine of apartheid. Indeed, if anything, Vorster`s measures have been designed to strengthen the security of the system of apartheid within South Africa.

Confronted with this unabashed determination of the apartheid regime to maintain its white supremacist system, the OAU`s responsibility is clear. We must ostracize, and urge the rest of the world to ostracize, the South African regime as at present organized. Free Africa must maintain the economic, political and cultural boycott of South Africa. The OAU and the United Nations must work in concert for the total isolation of the South African regime. There is no justification at all for changing this policy, as long as the apartheid policy continues.

If and when the leaders of the apartheid regime of South Africa decide to abandon their racist policy, they should initiate discussions with the liberation movements of South Africa. The regime should immediately and unconditionally release the nationalist leader, Nelson Mandela, and lift the restriction order on Robert Sobukwe, as well as hundreds of other nationalist leaders who are now in South African jails or under restriction orders.

The Ninth Extraordinary Session of the Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity resolutely reaffirms free Africa`s total rejection of apartheid and all its manifestations, including any so-called "independent homelands" within South Africa. The puppet leaders of these so-called homelands should be denied invitations by independent African States. The Council underscores the importance of all independent African States to remain firmly united in the policy of isolating South Africa and ostracizing its apartheid regime. The Council reiterates its support to the national liberation movements of South Africa in their struggle in all its forms. It also calls for the intensification of international effort with the cooperation of governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations for the eradication of apartheid.

Unprecedented opportunities and challenges prevail in South Africa following the collapse of the 500-year-old Portuguese colonialism. The OAU is determined to capitalize on the opportunities in order to bring closer the day when every inch of African soil will be free from colonial and racist domination. While being cognizant of the fact that South Africa stands as the final major obstacle to Africa`s march to liberation, the Council of Ministers reaffirms its unflinching determination to realize the freedom and independence of Zimbabwe and Namibia and the total destruction of apartheid and racial discrimination in South Africa.

The Ninth Extraordinary Session of the Council of Ministers, conscious of the important contribution made by Africa, friends and supporters all over the world in its quest for the liberation of the continent, launches a fervent appeal to them urging them to continue and intensify their support for solidarity with the liberation of Zimbabwe and Namibia, as well as for the ending of the inhuman system of apartheid in South Africa.

RESOLUTION ON SOUTH AFRICA

The Council of Ministers of the Organizations of African Unity meeting in its Ninth Extraordinary Session in Dar-es-Salaam from 7 to 10 April 1975

Considering that since its inception, all the resolutions which the United Nations and its various organs and specialized agencies have adopted condemning apartheid as a system of Government, have remained a dead letter to the Vorster regime and its allies,

Considering the systematic violation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, both in its form and spirit, by the Governments of South Africa and Rhodesia,

Recalling the resolutions of the various policy-making bodies of the OAU, condemning the racist minority regime of South Africa and inviting Member States to reject any form of dialogue with the Vorster regime,

Considering that some of the most heinous manifestations of the apartheid regime were the infamous Sharpeville massacre of 21 March 1960, the balkanization of the country into Bantustans where millions of Africans are confined, the illegal restriction and cold-blooded murder of thousands of patriots in the prisons of the apartheid regime,

Considering the policy of violent and systematic repressions pursued by the fascist regime of Pretoria against the national liberation movements in Namibia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Angola and the continued interference of the said regime through terrorism and subversion, in the internal affairs of neighbouring independent African States,

Considering that apartheid in South Africa draws sustenance particularly from the support given to it by certain Governments, and certain multinational companies,

Considering that apartheid is a genuine and permanent threat to international peace and security and particularly to the African peoples,

Considering the current political situation in Africa characterized by a clear awareness of the problems, by the positive victories won by the liberation movements in the African territories once colonized by Portugal and by the bright prospects for the liberation of the African peoples still under foreign domination, prospects which will rapidly become negative if we do not put them to advantage immediately and resolutely,

1. Strongly condemns the policy of apartheid of the racist regime of Pretoria, instrument of international imperialism and zionism, for its policy of domination of the African peoples;

2. Categorically rejects the policy of talks and so-called detente with the African States, advocated by Vorster, the spokesman of imperialism, and calculated to confuse world public opinion and to undermine African unity in the struggle to eliminate apartheid from South Africa;

3. Recognizes the right and duty of the peoples of South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe to regain, by all means including the use of force, their sovereignty which was usurped;

4. Unconditionally and vigorously supports the legitimate liberation struggle of the peoples of South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe against the racist minority regimes of South Africa and Rhodesia; Appeals to independent African States to increase their moral and material assistance to the peoples of South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe, in order to help them face the constant repression and repeated aggression of apartheid effectively;

6. Requests Arab and African oil-producing countries to follow up the application of the oil embargo against South Africa and also urges the other oil-producing countries which have not yet done so, to take similar measures;

7. Decides that the OAU Committee on Afro-Arab Cooperation should follow up the application of the oil embargo against South Africa with the Arab countries in order to ensure the use of this weapon against South Africa;

8. Recommends to Member States to boycott and refuse port facilities to all South African vessels and tankers including those on hire;

9. Solemnly appeals to all members of the international community and requests the African group at the United Nations to obtain from the Security Council the implementation of the measures provided for under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter in respect of countries like South Africa which continue to violate systematically the principles of the Charter, the United Nations resolutions and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

10. Instructs the Administrative Secretary--General of the OAU:

  1. To monitor and ensure the observance of economic sanctions against South Africa;
  2. To identify those multinational corporations which operate in South Africa while at the same time operating in some independent African States;
  3. To establish contact with and offer active support to anti-apartheid movements in the world; and
  4. To co-operate with the African Committee for Trade Union Co-ordination and Action against apartheid in order to secure the participation of the African workers in the struggle against apartheid;

11. Urges African States to gradually withdraw their labour force working in South African mines and invites Member States to take all necessary measures to assist these States in the rehabilitation of their labour force withdrawn from South Africa;

12. Invites the liberation movements of South Africa:
  1. To urgently adopt the necessary measures with a view to ensuring the unification of their movements;
  2. To mobilize in the most effective manner the population of South Africa against the apartheid regime;
  3. To adopt necessary measures with a view to launching guerilla warfare suitable to the terrain and the conditions prevailing in South Africa;

13. Invites Member States to continue:

  1. To refuse transit facilities to naval vessels and aircraft to or from South Africa;
  2. To ban South African tourists, businessmen and technical personnel from entering their territories; and
  3. To exert all pressure on the allies and partners of South Africa with a view to severing diplomatic, economic and other relations with the apartheid regime;

14. Demands, in addition to all other effective and appropriate sanctions, the immediate expulsion of South Africa from the United Nations Organization in view of the South African Government`s systematic and continuous violation of the United Nations Charter and its defiance of all its resolutions until the South African regime abandons, once and for all, its policy of apartheid and racial discrimination in South Africa and recognizes the total and effective independence of Namibia by strictly implementing the United Nations resolutions;

15. Expresses its profound gratitude to all friendly countries and international organizations for the substantial moral and material assistance which they grant to the liberation struggle of the peoples in South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe and requests them to increase this assistance, in order to ensure the total and final elimination of apartheid and colonial and imperialist exploitation 16. Decides:
  1. To recommend the speedy ratification of the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid;
  2. To reiterate its condemnation and rejection of any Bantustan policy and practice and call on all United Nations Member States to desist from establishing any contacts with the homeland "leaders";
  3. To urgently undertake to intensify information and propaganda activities in our respective countries to make aware and mobilize the peoples in support of our struggle for the total liberation of the continent, and to this end, urges African States to provide broadcasting facilities to the liberation movements;
  4. To strongly condemn the imperialist countries - principally France, the United States of America and the United Kingdom - for their continued collaboration and military alliance with the South African regime aimed at increasing its aggressive potential against the African continent;
  5. To urge the United Nations Security Council to take the necessary steps to make the arms embargo imposed on South Africa mandatory;
  6. To strongly condemn the main investors and multinational companies, as well as trading partners of the South African regime, for sustaining its economic power and resolve to take appropriate measures against them;
  7. To call for the unconditional release of political prisoners, as well as those in detention and under house arrest, and for an end to torture in South Africa;
  8. To urge the adoption and implementation of the draft resolution of the United Nations Conference on representation of liberation movements in their relations with international organizations.

Comunique issued at the end of the Commonwealth Heads Of Government Conference, Kingstown, Jamaica, 29 April to 6 May 1975

Extract

Heads of Government reaffirmed their total and unequivocal condemnation of apartheid and all forms of racialism. They welcomed the British Government`s decision to comply strictly with the United Nations embargo on the sale of arms to South Africa and to terminate the Simonstown Agreement.

They condemned the violation of the embargo by those countries which continued to supply arms to South Africa or enabled them to be manufactured in that country. Noting the alarming increase in South Africa`s defence expenditure, Heads of Government expressed their concern that this military build-up was bound to increase tension in an area already plagued by dangerous conflict.

Heads of Government also agreed to maintain and intensify effective pressure on South Africa in the struggle for the elimination of apartheid.

Council Of Ministers, Twenty-Fifth Ordinary Session, Kampala, Uganda, 18-25 July 1975

RESOLUTION ON SANCTIONS AGAINST THE WHITE MINORITY REGIMES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA 35

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its twenty-fifth ordinary session in Kampala, Uganda, from 18 to 25 July 1975,

Having taken note of the report of the Administrative Secretary-General on the application of sanctions against the white minority regimes in southern Africa,

Determined to fight by every means possible the white minority regimes in southern Africa until they are completely eliminated,

Considering the fact that the retrogressive apartheid policy in South Africa and the existence of the illegal regime based on racial discrimination in Southern Rhodesia constitute a serious threat to peace in Africa and international security,

Conscious of the importance and the effectiveness of sanctions as a weapon if they are strictly and vigorously applied,

Deeply concerned by the flagrant and repeated violations by certain countries and in particular Western countries and multinational corporations of sanctions imposed on the white racist minority regimes in southern Africa as well as the political, economic and military support they give to these regimes,

Strongly convinced that the racist minority regimes in southern Africa owe their survival to the decisive political, economic and military support of certain countries and multinational companies,

l. Reiterates its strongest condemnation of the abominable and retrogressive apartheid regime in southern Africa and the rebel racist minority regime in Southern Rhodesia;

2. Further renews its pressing appeal to every peace and justice-loving country to condemn unreservedly these regimes, because of their base, inhuman and humiliating apartheid policy of racial discrimination, by agreeing to isolate them completely and by strictly applying political, diplomatic, economic, commercial, military, cultural and other sanctions against them;

3. Urges the Western powers, particularly the United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland and Japan, to end immediately all co-operation with the regimes in Pretoria and Salisbury by respecting the various United Nations resolutions on international sanctions;

4. Invites all Member States to take individual and collective action with the Western powers and Japan in order to persuade them to stop immediately the massive support they continue to grant the racist minority regimes of Southern Africa;

5. Earnestly recommends that Member States take particularly strong measures against international companies which have business interests in South Africa and Southern Rhodesia as well as in independent Africa thus compelling them to make a choice;

6. Authorizes the Administrative Secretary-General to continue his contacts with anti-apartheid Governments as well as with any group or association engaged in the struggle against racial discrimination wherever they may be, so as to urge them to take effective action against the Governments and companies of their countries which violate sanctions against the racist and minority regimes in southern Africa.

RESOLUTION ON SOUTH AFRICA 36

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its twenty-fifth ordinary session in Kampala, Uganda, from 18 to 25 July 1975,

Taking note of the resolution adopted at the ninth extraordinary session held in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania,

Considering that the Pretoria regime, a product of colonial conquest is now operating as a full-fledged fascist power bent on perpetuating the ruthless domination of the indigenous people,

Considering that the tribal fragmentation of South Africa through the creation and arming of the Bantustan so-called states is designed to serve as labour and buffer zones as well as Trojan horses in the United Nations,

Convinced that the envisaged plot to present the Transkei and other Bantustan so-called states for recognition as independent and economically viable is an urgent challenge to the OAU`s and non-aligned countries` sacred principle of preserving national unity and territorial integrity of South Africa,

Gravely concerned that some Western countries, particularly France, the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Kingdom, in their anti-African role as allies of the Pretoria regime have stepped up their activities designed at increasing the repressive and aggressive potential of the Pretoria regime,

Convinced that the repeated triple veto exercised by the United States, France and the United Kingdom in the Security Council to save the South African regime from the expulsion, an action contrary to their proclaimed commitment to the ideals enshrined in the United Nations Charter testifies to their well-known commitment on the side of the South African racist regime,

Concerned with the stepping up of manoeuvres and activities of the Pretoria regime in attempting to legitimize the oppression and exploitation of the South African people through the so-called `detente`, seminars, colloquia, sports events and cultural exchanges,

Gravely concerned by the policy pursued by some West European countries which are heavily investing in the Bantustans with the view to help consolidate these tribal micro-states,

Noting with concern that some Member countries continue secret and public contacts with the Pretoria regime despite the Dar-es-Salaam resolutions calling on the cessation of such activities,

Noting with satisfaction the growing militancy of the African people whose determination to intensify the armed struggle is currently manifesting itself in various forms,

  1. Reaffirms the resolution adopted by the Ninth Extraordinary Session of the Council of Ministers and calls for its strict observance and implementation;
  2. Appeals to all Member States to instruct their ambassadors accredited in West European countries to spare no effort in opposing the Pretoria regime`s manoeuvres aimed at white-washing the apartheid regime;
  3. Calls on Member States to ensure that the Indian Ocean is a zone of peace;
  4. Appeals to Member States to render maximum support to the people of South Africa for the intensification of the armed struggle;
  5. Calls on all Member States intending to exchange visits with the Pretoria regime to renounce these in keeping with the unanimous OAU resolutions calling for the isolation of South Africa;
  6. Vehemently condemns France, the United States, the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic of Germany for their stepped up military alliance with the Pretoria regime in its frantic armament race designed for internal repression and aggression against independent Africa;
  7. Appeals to Member States to instruct their ambassadors accredited in Western countries to intensify their diplomatic action in opposing `detente` or dialogue with the Pretoria regime as well as pressurizing these countries to observe the arms and economic embargo;
  8. Reaffirms the legitimacy of the armed struggle for the seizure of power by the people of South Africa;
  9. Calls on the African Group at the United Nations to work for the expulsion of the Pretoria regime and the granting of the permanent observer status to the liberation movements recognized by the OAU and the United Nations;
  10. Calls on Member States of the League of Arab States to grant permanent observer status to African national liberation movements recognized by the OAU and recommends that these Member States favourably consider the requests of the liberation movements to open offices on the basis of bilateral negotiations.

Conference Of Ministers For Foreign Affairs Of Non-Aligned Countries, Lima, Peru, 25-30 August 1975

[The Conference adopted the "Lima Programme for Mutual Assistance and Solidarity." Included in that Programme was resolution VII, entitled "South Africa", which is reproduced below.]

The Conference of Ministers for Foreign Affairs,

Taking note of the resolution adopted at the ninth extraordinary session of the OAU Council of Ministers, held in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania,

Considering that the Pretoria regime, a product of colonial conquest is now operating as a full-fledged fascist power bent on perpetuating the ruthless domination of the indigenous people,

Considering that the tribal fragmentation of South Africa through the creation and arming of the Bantustan so-called states is designed to serve as labour and buffer zones as well as Trojan horses in the United Nations,

Convinced that the envisaged plot to present the Transkei and other Bantustan so-called states for recognition as independent and economically viable is an urgent challenge to the OAU`s and non-aligned countries` sacred principle of preserving national unity and territorial integrity of South Africa,

Gravely concerned that some Western countries, particularly France, the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Kingdom, in their anti-African role as allies of the Pretoria regime have stepped up their activities designed at increasing the repressive and aggressive potential of the Pretoria regime,

Convinced that the repeated triple veto exercised by the United States, France and the United Kingdom in the Security Council to save the South African regime from expulsion, an action contrary to their proclaimed commitment to the ideals enshrined in the United Nations Charter, testifies to their well-known commitment on the side of the South African racist regime,

Concerned with the stepping up of manoeuvres and activities of the Pretoria regime in attempting to legitimize perpetual enslavement, the oppression and exploitation of the South African people through the so-called `detente`,

Gravely concerned by the policy pursued by some West European countries which are heavily investing in the Bantustans with the view to help consolidate these tribal micro-states,

Noting with concern that some Member countries continue secret and public contacts with the Pretoria regime despite the Dar-es-Salaam resolution calling on the cessation of such activities,

Noting with satisfaction the growing militancy of the African people whose determination to intensify the armed struggle is currently manifesting itself in various forms,

1. Reaffirms the resolution adopted by the ninth extraordinary session of the OAU Council of Ministers and calls for its strict observance and implementation;

2. Appeals to all Member States to instruct their ambassadors accredited in West European countries to spare no effort in opposing the Pretoria regime`s manoeuvres aimed at white-washing the apartheid regime;

3. Calls on Member States to ensure that the Indian Ocean is a zone of peace;

4. Appeals to Member States to render maximum support to the people of South Africa for the intensification of the armed struggle, especially the implementation of the Declaration on the struggle, for liberation by the Fourth Conference of Heads of State and Government of Non-Aligned Countries in Algiers which, inter alia, called for the creation of a support and solidarity fund to increase the effectiveness of national liberation movements;

5. Calls on all Member States intending to exchange visits with the Pretoria regime to renounce these in keeping with the resolutions adopted by the non-aligned countries calling for the isolation of South Africa;

6. Vehemently condemns France, the United States, the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic of Germany for their stepped up military alliance with the Pretoria regime in its frantic armament race designed for internal repression and aggression against independent Africa;

7. Appeals to Member States to instruct their ambassadors accredited in Western countries to intensify their diplomatic action in opposing `detente` or dialogue with the Pretoria regime as well as pressuring these countries to observe the arms and economic embargo;

8. Reaffirms the legitimacy of the armed struggle for the seizure of power by the people of South Africa;

9. Categorically rejects the policy of Bantustans being carried out by the apartheid r6gime which is calculated to entrench the inhuman system of apartheid and declares that the so-called homelands should under no circumstances be given international recognition;

10. Calls on the Non-Aligned Group at the United Nations to work for the expulsion of the Pretoria regime and the granting of the permanent observer status to the liberation movements recognized by the OAU and the United Nations.

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Thirteenth Ordinary Session, Mauritius, 2 to 6 July 1976

RESOLUTION ON THE SECURITY OF COUNTRIES NEAREST TO THE SOUTHERN AFRICA BATTLEFIELD14

Having heard the statement of H.E. President of the Republic of Zambia, Dr. Kenneth D. Kaunda,

Taking note of the serious threat posed by the minority racist regimes in Southern Africa on the security of Frontline States,

Considering the increasing tension on that region caused by the successful prosecution of the intensified armed struggle in Zimbabwe and Namibia,

1. Declares that any attack by the racist regimes against any frontline State shall be deemed to be an attack on independent Africa as a whole;

2. Resolves that in the event of such attack Member States of the OAU shall give all possible support to repel aggression against an independent Member State;

3. Recognizes that each Member State of the OAU has a moral obligation to give military assistance to the Liberation Movements when requested to do so and with the agreement of the countries nearest the battlefield which are in the frontline of the struggle;

4. Undertakes to meet all moral, financial and material obligations to the OAU and the Liberation Movements.

Twenty-eighth Ordinary Session of the Council of Ministers, Twenty-eighth Ordinary Session, Libreville, Gabon, 23 June-3 July 1977

RESOLUTION ON SPECIAL ASSISTANCE TO SOUTHERN AFRICAN REFUGEES15

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity meeting in its Twenty-ninth Ordinary Session in Libreville, Gabon, from 23 June to 3 July 1977,

Bearing in mind, on the one hand, Article 4 of the OAU Convention on the allotment of responsibilities among Member States and, on the other, Resolution CM/Res. 536 (XXVIII) of the Twenty-eighth Ordinary Session by which the Council established a Special Committee of Experts to assess the requirements of students and the young refugees from southern Africa in terms of assistance,

Considering the urgency, the seriousness and the magnitude of this problem,

Having examined the report of the OAU Commission of Ten on Refugee Problems as well as the assessment of the needs and the conclusions contained in the report prepared by a mission to Botswana and submitted by the Director of the Bureau for Placement and Education of African Refugees (BPEAR),

Having taken further cognizance of the conclusions of the United Nations Mission to that region and the recent appeal made by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to the International Community in general and OAU Member States in particular for appropriate emergency aid to refugees,

Considering that the placement of these young refugees in African educational institutions is one of the most urgent and friendly aspects of the problem both for the safety and the training of the refugees,

Having noted with satisfaction the initiative already taken by some Member States to provide assistance,

Assessing the gravity of the refugee problem in southern Africa, which is a direct consequence of the apartheid regime, and considering that the number of these refugees and their suffering will increase with the intensification of the national liberation struggle,

Having heard the statement of the representative of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees on the question,

1. Reiterates its gratitude to the host countries of the region and urges them to generously grant to refugees the hospitality and assistance they need irrespective of their political affiliations;

2. Expresses its gratitude to other Member States which are taking action to provide assistance to these refugees and encourages these States to continue their efforts and increase their valuable assistance;

3. Congratulates the Commission of Ten and the BPEAR on the interest they are showing in this matter and on their successful initiatives in this regard;

4. Further notes with satisfaction the concrete proposals made by the United Nations Mission of Experts on refugee students in Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland;

5. Strongly supports the appeal made by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees for increased assistance to refugees and recommends that Member States generously consider the requests for assistance made to them, and especially recommends that they make more vacancies, bursaries and scholarships available to these refugees in their educational institutions;

6. Invites Member States to inform the BPEAR at the latest by 31 August 1977 on the number of young refugee students whom they can receive in their countries or grant scholarships to;

7. Decides to set up a special fund for aid, similar to the Liberation Committee Fund, for southern African refugees to be funded from extra-budgetary contributions and administered by BPEAR;

8. Appeals once again to the international community and particularly to the international organizations of humanitarian interest to continue to give assistance;

9. Calls on the Secretary General to convene urgently a meeting of the Committee of Experts set up under Resolution CM/536 (XXVIII); follow up developments of the situation in this region; assist in finding a solution to this problem in consultation with Member States, Liberation Movements and UNHCR; and report to the Council of Ministers at its Thirtieth Ordinary Session;

10. Expresses satisfaction with the harmonious co-operation between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the Coordinating Committee and

BPEAR and urges them to continue their efforts in order to find suitable solutions to the problem of refugees.

RESOLUTION ON WORLD CONFERENCE FOR ACTION AGAINST APARTHEID16

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Twenty-ninth Ordinary Session in Libreville, Gabon, from 23 June to 3 July 1977,

Conscious of the urgent need to promote widest and most effective international action, by Governments and organizations, in support of the liberation struggle in Southern Africa, Welcoming the decision of the United Nations General Assembly, in its resolution 31/6 of 9 November 1976, authorizing the Special Committee against Apartheid to organize a World Conference for Action against Apartheid in 1977 in co-operation with the Organization of African Unity, the South African liberation movements, the NGO Sub-Committee on Decolonization, Racial Discrimination and Apartheid, and other appropriate bodies,

Noting with great appreciation that the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria has agreed to host the World Conference for Action against Apartheid in August 1977;

Anxious to ensure the success of the Conference and to enable it to attain its main objective of mobilizing maximum world opinion for the liberation struggle; 1. Invites all Member States to participate at a high level in that Conference and encourages the participation of other liberation movements recognized by the OAU and non-governmental leaders of African organizations; 2. Requests the Administrative Secretary-General to co-operate actively with the Federal Government of Nigeria and the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid for the organization of the said Conference.

RESOLUTION ON SANCTIONS17

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Twenty-ninth Ordinary Session in Libreville, Gabon, from 23 June to 3 July 1977,

Gravely concerned over the explosive situation in South Africa,

Noting with indignation the unabated massacres of and barbaric repression against the black people perpetrated by the apartheid regime since the Soweto massacre of 16 June 1976,

Recognizing that the apartheid regime is further intensifying racist domination and exploitation and has shown no willingness to seek a solution based on the principles of freedom, equality and self-determination,

Strongly denouncing the declaration of the sham independence of the bantustan of Transkei on 26 October 1976 and the plans for the creation of another bantustan in Bophuthatswana in December 1977,

Recognizing that the policies and actions of the apartheid regime in South Africa constitute a grave threat to the peace and security in the whole region,

Congratulating the black people of South Africa and their national liberation movements, as well as other opponents of apartheid, for their heroic resistance against that inhuman system,

Reaffirming the firm commitment of the Organization of African Unity for the liberation of South Africa and the abolition of discrimination against all people of African descent,

Considering that African and international action must be greatly expanded in this crucial period of the struggle for the liberation of South Africa,

Noting with satisfaction the growth of international opposition to apartheid and the support for the liberation struggle since the Soweto massacre,

Considering that the Organization of African Unity should further intensify co-operation with the United Nations, especially the Special Committee against Apartheid, the Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, and develop close contacts with trade unions, religious bodies, anti-apartheid movements, and all other international organizations in order to promote international action against apartheid;

1. Strongly supports the resolutions adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, at its Thirty-first Session in 1976, on the problem of apartheid in South Africa, particularly the "Programme of Action against Apartheid" and appeals to all States and organizations to implement it;

2. Commends the United Nations General Assembly for its unanimous and total rejection of the Transkei and other bantustans at its Thirty-first Session;

3. Calls on all Member States to further mobilize all their peoples through education, public demonstrations and other activities in support of action against apartheid;

4. Affirms the urgent need for the total isolation of the apartheid regime - with utmost priority for the cessation of all military and nuclear co-operation with that regime, as well as bank loans to, and investments in South Africa - and requests the African Group at the United Nations to press for the adoption of mandatory decisions by the Security Council to that end;

5. Decides to appoint a delegation of three members of the Council of Ministers to undertake a mission to all major oil-exporting countries to consult with them on the implementation of an effective embargo on the supply of petroleum and petroleum products to South Africa and Southern Rhodesia in accordance with the resolutions of the United Nations and the OAU;

6. Requests the African Group at the United Nations, in co-operation with the Special Committee against Apartheid, to review the activities of transnational corporations collaborating with the South African regime, particularly those enabling that regime in its military build-up and nuclear development, and recommend separate and collective measures which the African and other friendly countries may take in order to oblige such corporations to desist from such criminal collaboration with the apartheid regime;

7. Congratulates the Organization of African Trade Union Unity (OATUU) for mobilizing the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU),.the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFFTU) and the World Confederation of Labour (WCL) in launching a common programme of a week of solidarity with the workers and struggling people of South Africa;

8. Encourages future action of this type in conformity with the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the World Trade Union Conference against apartheid, in Geneva, from 10 to 11 June 1977;

9. Encourages the Special Committee against Apartheid in all its initiatives to promote solidarity by trade unions, religious bodies, students and youth, and others with the liberation struggle in South Africa;

10. Invites the Administrative Secretary-General to lend all possible co-operation to the Special Committee against Apartheid, and to all organizations active in the international campaign against apartheid in their activities.

RESOLUTION ON SOUTH AFRICA18

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Twenty-ninth Ordinary Session in Libreville, Gabon, from 23 June to 3 July 1977,

Having heard the representatives of the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC) and the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC), and the Chairman of the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid,

Conscious of the fact that the increased militancy of the oppressed students, youths and workers is the reflection of the revolutionary situation prevailing throughout South Africa,

Convinced that the struggle for national liberation has entered a decisive and irreversible phase in South Africa,

Considering that apartheid, offspring of colonial domination, is to be used as a weapon by the minority of white settlers to perpetuate the colonial status quo and continue to oppress the black people, expropriate their lands, confiscate their natural resources and national wealth,

Recalling the relevant resolutions of the OAU, the Non-Aligned Countries and the United Nations which condemn apartheid as a crime against humanity and which call upon the United Nations Member States to break off their diplomatic, economic, cultural and military relations with the Pretoria regime,

Recalling in particular the resolution of the Thirty-first Session of the United Nations General Assembly which very emphatically declared the South African regime illegitimate, reaffirmed the legitimacy of the struggle in all its forms for the recovery of power for the people, and recommended to the Security Council to apply compulsory economic sanctions and an arms embargo in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter,

Considering condemnation by the liberation movements of the main trading partners of the Pretoria regime, whose collaboration with Pretoria in the economic and military fields consolidates this regime`s system of exploitation and strengthens its capacity for repression and aggression,

Considering that the nuclear co-operation developing between South Africa, the United States of America, France, the Federal Republic of Germany and Israel constitutes a clear manifestation of the hostility of these countries to the cause of African liberation and deliberately aims at helping the Pretoria regime to manufacture atomic weapons to intimidate Africa and the international community,

Reaffirming Africa`s readiness to achieve a genuine negotiated solution but concerned that the Anglo-American plan for a so-called peaceful settlement in Zimbabwe and Namibia only aims at establishing puppet regimes in these territories and transforming them into buffer zones against the liberation struggle in South Africa,

Convinced that the true liberation of Zimbabwe and Namibia is closely linked with the overthrow of the Pretoria regime, which no doubt constitutes the bastion of white domination in the region,

Convinced that the present liberation struggle in Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa forms part of the process of the total emancipation of the African continent and the preservation of world peace,

1. Reaffirms that the apartheid regime is illegitimate and represents a grave threat to world peace and security;

2. Reaffirms the legitimacy of the armed struggle aimed at transferring power to the people of South Africa;

3. Hails the heroic struggle of the South African people mobilized by the national liberation movements against institutionalized terrorism, legalized violation of human rights, and the continued massacres of the defenceless civilian population, and on this occasion, most energetically condemns the heinous repression of which students and children in South Africa are still victims;

4. Declares the Pretoria regime an enemy of humanity and recommends that all Member States intensify their actions to further isolate South Africa on the international plane;

5. Calls on all peace, justice and freedom-loving nations to increase their moral support and financial and material aid to the national liberation movements of South Africa;

6. Rejects as unacceptable any interim government or machinery set up within the framework of the so-called Anglo-American peace settlement without the co-operation of the true representatives of Zimbabwe and Namibia;

7. Strongly condemns all States which collaborate with South Africa in the political, diplomatic, military and economic fields in glaring violation of the relevant United Nations resolutions and, particularly, the United States of America, France, Great Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Israel, Belgium and Italy;

8. Strongly condemns the United States of America, France, the Federal Republic of Germany and Israel for their collaboration with the Pretoria regime in the nuclear field;

9. Mandates to the African Group at the United Nations in New York to take joint action for the resumption of the Security Council`s debate on South Africa, in accordance with the decision of the Thirty-first Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, particularly as the said decision calls on the Council to apply sanctions and arms embargo, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter;

10. Requests the United States of America, France and Great Britain to put an end to their connivance with the apartheid regime and desist from imposing their vetoes to protect South Africa and to thwart the efforts of the Council to compel this regime to respect its resolutions;

11. Strongly condemns the continued imprisonment of hundreds of students and workers, the murder of political prisoners and persecution of leaders such as Winnie Nomzano Mandela and Zeph Mothopeng;

12. Demands the immediate and unconditional release of all nationalist leaders serving terms of life imprisonment or long sentences who have been jailed since 1963 and pays tribute to their heroic sacrifice;

13. Reaffirms its total and unconditional rejection of Bantustans and gives mandate to the African Group at the United Nations in New York to campaign against the recognition of another Bantustan, namely Bophuthatswana, whose so-called independence is scheduled for 6 December 1977.

RESOLUTION ON SPORTING LINKS WITH SOUTH AFRICA19

Recalling resolution CM/488 (XXVII) of 1976 on sporting links with South Africa,

Noting the impressive impact of the concerted action of the General Secretariat of the OAU, the Supreme Council for Sports in Africa, African States and their friendly allies in boycotting the 1976 Montreal Olympic Games as a mark of disapproval of the participation of New Zealand, a collaborator of South Africa in sports,

Considering that New Zealand authorities have not taken any effective steps to terminate sporting links between New Zealand and apartheid South Africa,

Conscious of the concerted action of certain interested parties to undermine the solidarity demonstrated by Africa and some other countries that supported the cause of justice in the Montreal boycott,

1. Reiterates its strong condemnation of all countries and international organizations that still maintain sporting links with apartheid South Africa;

2. Congratulates the courage of all OAU member states and all international communities that boycotted the 1976 Montreal Olympic Games as a mark of solidarity with the suppressed people of South Africa;

3. Appeals to all countries, particularly New Zealand, to withdraw support for apartheid by renouncing sporting links with racist South Africa;

4. Invites all OAU Members to refrain from participating in any sporting events in which a National Sport Association, which maintains sporting relations with South Africa, is also taking part.

RESOLUTION ON MILITARY AND NUCLEAR COLLABORATION BETWEEN FRANCE, ISRAEL, JAPAN AND IN PARTICULAR THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY, AND APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA20

The Council of Ministers of the OAU meeting in its Twenty-ninth Ordinary Session in Libreville, Gabon, from 23 June to 3 July 1977,

Having studied documents exposing collaboration between France, Israel, Japan and in particular the Federal Republic of Germany with the apartheid regime of South Africa in the nuclear field and at other military levels,

Recalling resolution 490 and 485 adopted by the OAU Council of Ministers at its Twenty-seventh Session in Mauritius condemning nuclear and military collaboration between these States and apartheid South Africa,

Further recalling resolution 538 (XXVIII) adopted by the OAU Council of Ministers in which the Council expressed its outrage at the military collaboration with the apartheid regime of South Africa involving the Federal Republic of Germany, her NATO allies, Israel and Japan,

Noting that these States continue to oppose the imposition of a mandatory arms embargo against the apartheid regime of South Africa,

Noting that in defiance of United Nations resolutions, the Federal Republic of Germany maintains a consulate in Windhoek, Namibia, and continues to collaborate with racist South Africa in the economic, military and trade fields,

Strongly condemning France, Israel, Japan and, in particular, the Federal Republic of Germany for their military and nuclear collaboration with the apartheid regime of South Africa,

1. Calls upon these Governments to desist forthwith from such activities and to take concrete measures to cancel with immediate effect all contracts involving the supply of weapons to the apartheid regime of South Africa and any other military collaboration;

2. Calls on the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany to close down its Consulate in Windhoek, Namibia, and to sever all military, economic, cultural and trade dealings with racist South Africa;

3. Expresses its gratitude to the anti-apartheid groups in Europe as a whole and, in particular, in the Federal Republic of Germany, for its work and collaboration with the OAU in its campaign against the apartheid regime in nuclear field in South Africa.

RESOLUTION ON THE INTERNATIONAL ANTI-APARTHEID YEAR21

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Twenty-ninth Ordinary Session in Libreville, Gabon, from 23 June to 3 July 1977,

Recognizing the imperative need for effective international action for the total eradication of apartheid and in support of the just struggle of the oppressed people of South Africa, led by their liberation movements, for freedom,

Considering that maximum efforts must be made to mobilize world public opinion for this purpose,

Taking note of the recommendation of the United Nations Economic and Social Council recommending that 1978 be declared as the International Anti-Apartheid Year,

1. Endorses the proposal to declare 1978 as the International Anti-Apartheid Year

2. Appeals to all Governments and organizations to make maximum efforts during the proposed International Year to inform public opinion of the inhumanity of apartheid, and encourage moral, political and material assistance for the struggle for freedom in South Africa;

3. Requests the Administrative Secretary-General and the African Group at the United Nations to co-operate closely with the Special Committee against Apartheid with a view to promoting effective and world-wide observance of the proposed International Year.

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Fifteenth Ordinary Session, Khartoum, Democratic Republic of the Sudan, 18-22 July 1978

RESOLUTION TO OBSERVE THE DAY OF MARTYRS OF SOUTH AFRICA22

The Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the OAU, meeting in its Fifteenth Ordinary Session in Khartoum, Democratic Republic of the Sudan, from 18 to 22 July 1978,

Taking note with dismay and deep regret of the increasing atrocities perpetrated by the apartheid regime of South Africa resulting in the callous, continuous and systematic elimination of South African nationalist leaders, the massacre of innocent youths and the torture and murder of nationalist detainees under the obnoxious racist laws,

Determined that the lives of these valiant champions of African freedom and dignity are not lost in vain,

Conscious of their obligations to pursue the fight for elimination of apartheid and the establishment of a free and just society in South Africa,

Recognizing the vital and decisive role which the international community can play in this combat,

  1. Renews its deepest sympathy and condolences to the courageous and struggling people of South Africa;
  2. Resolves to expand and intensify the fight against the ungodly apartheid system of the racist and oppressive regime on all fronts;
  3. Decides to designate the 12th of September as “South African Martyrs Day”;
  4. Calls on all Member States and the international community to observe the 12th September as “South African Martyrs Day” on an annual basis by instituting measures and actions aimed at the rapid disintegration of the apartheid system.

Council of Ministers, Twenty-third Ordinary Session, Monrovia, Liberia, 6-20 July 1979

RESOLUTION ON THE DENUCLEARIZATION OF AFRICA23

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Thirty-third Ordinary Session in Monrovia, Liberia, from 6 to 20 July 1979,

Recalling the Addis Ababa resolution adopted by the First Summit Conference of Independent African States held in Addis Ababa, from 22 to 25 May 1963, declaring Africa a denuclearized zone,

Recalling further resolution CM/Res.3(I) adopted by the First Session of the Council of Ministers and resolution CM/Res.28(II) adopted by the Second Session of the Council of Ministers which met in Lagos, Nigeria, from 24 to 29 February 1964,

Reaffirming its resolve to see that the principle declaring Africa a denuclearized zone and promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is respected,

Recalling the draft Convention for the Denuclearization of the Continent of Africa submitted by the Secretariat in document CM/3(II) during the Second Session of the Council of Ministers,

Gravely concerned with the existing co-operation in the nuclear sphere between South Africa`s racist regime and the Zionist entity,

Gravely concerned by the threat posed to the security of Africa as a result of South Africa`s nuclear capability through extensive material and technological assistance which it receives from its Western partners,

1. Calls upon the Western powers to refrain from supplying South Africa with nuclear material and technology, and condemns Israel and all other States for their nuclear collaboration with South Africa;

2. Condemns the continued and growing co-operation in the nuclear sphere between South Africa`s racist regime and Israel in view of the threat it poses to the security and peace of the African continent and people;

3. Invites member States of the Organization of African Unity to study the question of Denuclearization of the Continent of Africa contained in document CM/3(II) of the Second Ordinary Session of the OAU Council of Ministers and to transmit their observations and comments thereon to the Secretary-General at the earliest possible date, and in any case, not later than the next Summit Conference;

4. Requests the Secretary-General to propose to the Eighteenth Assembly of the OAU Heads of State and Government concrete measures to be taken on the basis of comments received from member States.

RESOLUTION ON OIL EMBARGO AGAINST SOUTHERN AFRICA24

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Thirty-third Ordinary Session in Monrovia, Liberia, from 6 to 20 July 1979,

Having examined the informative reports submitted by the Secretary-General and the OAU Sanctions Committee against the racist minority regimes of southern Africa,

Mindful of the fact that South Africa and Rhodesia`s economic structure as well as the machine of repression and aggression of these fascist regimes are mainly dependent on the continued supply of oil,

Highly appreciative of the position of the member countries of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) not to supply oil to the apartheid and the racist minority Rhodesian regime,

Encouraged by the historic decision taken by the new Government of Iran to terminate all supplies to South Africa,

Mindful of the negative role played by some oil companies which engage in secret arrangements to supply South Africa without the knowledge and approval of the oil exporting countries,

Convinced of the urgent and imperative need to consult with all oil exporting countries with the view to develop with them such concrete measures to monitor the activities of the oil companies doing business with them, in order to impose individual and collective penalties on those companies that violate the embargo and supply their oil to South Africa,

1. Welcomes the proposals for methods of monitoring and cutting down the shipment of oil to South Africa as contained in the report of the Secretary-General and entitled “Implementation of an Effective Oil Embargo against South Africa”;

2. Requests all oil exporting countries to intensify efforts to monitor the final destination of their oil and to take all necessary action to prevent it from being delivered to South Africa and to penalize the oil companies guilty of such operations;

3. Decides to entrust the OAU Committee on Sanctions with the responsibility of establishing contacts with the oil exporting countries in order to enlist their co-operation in the creation of an appropriate machinery to monitor oil shipments to South Africa and to penalize oil companies involved in such illegal shipment.

RESOLUTION ON THE APPLICATION OF SANCTIONS AGAINST THE RACIST AND MINORITY REGIMES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA25

The Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Thirty-third Ordinary Session in Monrovia, Liberia, from 6 to 20 July 1979,

Having considered the Secretary-General`s report on the Application of Sanctions Against the Racist and Minority Regimes in Southern Africa, document CM/970 (XXXIII),

Having taken cognizance of the report of the Standing Committee on Sanctions, document CM/971 (XXXIIII),

Recalling all pertinent resolutions of the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity,

Deeply concerned by the continuous violation of sanctions by some countries against the regimes in southern Africa,

Considering that the strict and vigorous application of sanctions by the international community as a whole would undoubtedly lead to the collapse of the racist minority regimes of Pretoria and Salisbury,

Regretting the use of African airports and air space by South African aircrafts or by other airlines to and from South Africa,

Bearing in mind current special difficulties confronting some independent States in southern Africa and Cape Verde which are obliged to maintain some economic relations with the South African regime by virtue of historical and geographical circumstances,

Resolved to pursue and develop the campaign to isolate the regimes of South Africa and Rhodesia,

Convinced of the need for better coordination between the activities of the OAU Standing Committee on Sanctions, and those of the Committee on Sanctions of the United Nations Security Council and other international organizations,

Fully aware of the perfidious role played by international oil companies by illegally diverting oil to the racist and minority regimes in southern Africa,

Deeply shocked by the attempts of the Government of the United Kingdom to lift sanctions against the illegal regime of Rhodesia and to ensure that this regime is recognized by the international community,

Deeply concerned by the manoeuvres being made by certain elements in the Congress of the United States to compel the Government of the United States to lift United Nations sanctions now enforced against the illegal Muzorewa/Smith regime in Rhodesia,

Bearing in mind the temporary situation in which Cape Verde and some independent States in southern Africa by which they are economically bound,

Deeply concerned by the activities of the Governments of the United Kingdom and United States to stifle the struggle of the people of Zimbabwe for genuine independence as demonstrated by these two Governments in the granting of visas and reception accorded to Muzorewa and Smith, the representatives of the illegal regime of Rhodesia, on their visits to the United States and the United Kingdom in violation of the United Nations Security Council resolution of March 1979,

Determined to spare no effort in ensuring that mandatory sanctions, especially oil embargo are imposed on the South African regime by the Security Council in conformity with Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

Convinced that the use of specialized services of consultants would be such to facilitate the task of the OAU Standing Committee on Sanctions,

1. Takes note with satisfaction of the report of the Secretary-General on the Application of Sanctions against the Racist and Minority Regimes of Southern Africa;

2. Further takes note of the report of the OAU Standing Committee on Sanctions;

3. Deprecates and condemns the expressed intention of the Government of the United Kingdom to lift sanctions against the illegal minority regime of Rhodesia and to accord it recognition in violation of the decision of the United Nations Security Council and other resolutions:

4. Calls upon certain elements in the Congress of the United States to desist forthwith from pressuring the Government of the United States to lift sanctions against the Muzorewa/Smith regime in violation of the decision of the United Nations Security Council and other resolutions;

5. Condemns the Governments of the United States and the United Kingdom for granting visa and admitting into their countries the representative of the Muzorewa/Smith illegal regime in 1978 and recently in 1979 in flagrant violation of the United Nations Security Council mandatory sanctions against Rhodesia;

6. Further requests the Standing Committee on Sanctions to have fresh consultations with the independent countries in southern Africa as well as Cape Verde with a view to examining their needs together and defining other forms of co-operation which in some cases might be most appropriate;

7. Appeals to member States to offer substantial financial or other forms of assistance to the States neighbours of South Africa and Cape Verde to enable them to face the difficulties resulting from the application of sanctions;

8. Expresses its appreciation to the OAU Standing Committee on Sanctions for its commendable work, for the manner in which it fulfilled its delicate assignment and encourages it to pursue its task with perseverance and tenacity;

9. Expresses understanding, sympathy for and solidarity with some of the independent States of southern Africa and Cape Verde with regard to their difficulties caused by their situation in relation to South Africa;

10. Condemns all those countries which continue to have political, diplomatic, economic, trade, military, nuclear and other relations with the South African and Rhodesian regimes in violation of the relevant resolutions of the Organization of African Unity and of the United Nations, in particular the United Kingdom, the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Belgium, Italy, as well as certain Latin American countries;

11. Calls upon all countries, in particular the United Kingdom, the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Israel, Australia, Canada and Italy, to take effective legislative and/or administrative measures to ensure that their nationals shall not enlist for a participation in mercenary work in support of the white minority regimes of southern Africa;

12. Calls upon African countries which continue to have air links with South Africa to study the possibility of cutting such links, refusing to allow all aircrafts to and from South Africa to fly over their territories and denying such aircrafts the use of their airports;

13. Reminds the OAU Secretariat to convene the meeting of aeronautical experts to study this subject as directed by resolution CM/Res.623 (XXXI) adopted in Khartoum, Sudan, and to report to the next session of the Council of Ministers;

14. Recommends that the international oil companies supplying oil to South Africa and Rhodesia be blacklisted in all African countries;

15. Appeals most urgently to the African oil producing countries to further demonstrate their solidarity by supplying more oil to the independent countries in southern Africa, adversely effected by the oil embargo against South Africa;

16. Requests the OAU Standing Committee on Sanctions to continue its consultations with the member States of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to study the means by which international oil companies evade oil sanctions against South Africa and to devise methods to ensure their compliance with oil sanctions against South Africa and the illegal regime of Rhodesia;

17. Urges all friendly countries as well as the international community to continue applying sanctions against the racist minority regime of Rhodesia and to refrain from recognizing Muzorewa’s puppet regime or any other Government resulting from the internal settlement of March 1978 or the April 1979 bogus elections;

18. Requests the Secretary-General of the OAU and the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid to organize an international conference in 1980 under the joint auspices of the United Nations and OAU to mobilize world public opinion in support of the effective application of economic and other sanctions against South Africa;

19. Calls on OAU member States to co-operate fully with the General Secretariat and the OAU Standing Committee on Sanctions by communicating regularly to the General Secretariat the necessary information on how sanctions are applied by them;

20. Requests the African Group at the United Nations to take necessary steps to convene a meeting of the United Nations Security Council with a view to considering, in accordance with Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, the general question of mandatory economic sanctions and especially oil embargo against the racist South African regime;

21. Authorizes the Secretary-General to make use of the services of a consultant group on sanctions for a year to facilitate the work and activities of the OAU Standing Committee on Sanctions;

22. Congratulates all international non-governmental organizations for their activities in the struggle against the minority regimes of southern Africa including the Organization of African Trade Union Unity (OATUU) and other international trade union organizations on the boycott action carried out in conformity with the resolution adopted in the Second International Trade Union Conference held in Geneva in June 1977;

23. Further appeals to these organizations to launch an international campaign to enforce sanctions against the Pretoria and Salisbury regimes and appeals to workers in these countries to refuse to load and unload ships and aircrafts going to and from South Africa;

24. Invites OAU member States to take individual and collective action to penalize countries which collaborate with the racist regimes of southern Africa and appeals to member States of the Non-Aligned Movement and other friendly countries to do the same;

25. Strongly condemns those countries which continue to collaborate in the nuclear fields with the apartheid regime and mandates the African Group at the United Nations to convene the Security Council in order to examine this question.

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Nineteenth Ordinary Session, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 6-12 June 1983

RESOLUTION ON THE POLICY OF DESTABILIZATION BY RACIST SOUTH AFRICAN REGIME AGAINST SOUTHERN AFRICAN INDEPENDENT STATES26

The Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Nineteenth Ordinary Session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 6 to 12 June, 1983,

Having examined the report of the 40th Ordinary Session of the Co-ordinating Committee for the Liberation of Africa,

Recalling the relevant resolution adopted at the 18th Summit of OAU held in Nairobi, Kenya, June 1981,

Taking into consideration the relevant resolution adopted by the Security Council and the UN General Assembly, relating to the situation in Southern Africa,

Also taking into consideration the relevant part of the Political Declaration adopted by the Seventh Conference of Heads of State and Government of the Non-Aligned Countries, held in New Delhi, India, from the 7th to the 12th March 1983,

Deeply concerned by the deteriorating situation in Southern Africa, caused by the policy of destabilization and outright aggression by South Africa against the neighboring independent states,

Considering that the undeclared war of aggression waged by the apartheid regime against the sovereign states of the region constitutes a threat to world peace and security:

1. Declares that the undeclared war of aggression waged by the racist South Africa against Independent African States constitutes a grave threat to the peace and security in Africa and to the world at large;

2. Denounces the intensification of the military, political, and economic acts of destabilization perpetrated by the South African racist regime against the neighboring Independent States of Angola, Mozambique, Zambia, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho and Seychelles;

3. Strongly condemns the South African regime for recruiting, arming, financing and infiltrating dissident groups, bandits and mercenaries to be used against the sovereign states of the regime;

4. Strongly condemns the military occupation by the South African troops of part of the territory of the People’s Republic of Angola in violation of its national sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of this country;

5. Demands the immediate and unconditional withdrawal of the occupation troops for the Angolan territory;

6. Fully supports the measures taken by the Angolan Government in accordance with Article 51 of UN Charter in order to guarantee and safeguard the territorial integrity and national sovereignty of the People’s Republic of Angola;

7. Condemns the massive concentration of South African troops along the Mozambican border and the acts of aggression perpetrated by the racist South African Regime against the People’s Republic of Mozambique;

8. Strongly condemns in particular the recent bombing by the apartheid regime of Matola, a suburb of the Mozambican capital and the acts of territorial violation and espionage undertaken by the same regime against the People’s Republic of Mozambique;

9. Expresses its full support to the People and Government of Mozambique in their struggle to preserve National Independence and Sovereignty and urges all African States and peace loving countries to provide political, diplomatic and material support to the People’s Republic of Mozambique;

10. Condemns the South African raids against the Kingdom of Lesotho and in particular the massacres of South African refugees and civilians of Lesotho;

11. Denounces the recent blockade imposed by the apartheid regime against the Kingdom of Lesotho and considers it a criminal act of aggression and blatant violation of the principles and objectives of the UN Charter;

12. Appeals to the International Community to take concrete measures in order to put an end to the aggressive and criminal policy of the apartheid regime and to increase political, diplomatic and material support to the countries that are victims of the South African acts of aggression.

RESOLUTION ON SOUTH AFRICA27

The Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Nineteenth Ordinary Session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 6 to 12 June, 1983,

Having examined the report of the 40th Session of the Co-ordinating Committee for the Liberation of Africa,

Having heard the statements by the representatives of the Liberation Movements of South Africa,

Reaffirming that the apartheid system constitutes a crime against humanity and a threat to world peace and international security,

Recalling the relevant resolutions of the Organization of African Unity, the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations recognizing the legitimacy of the struggle waged by the oppressed people of South Africa in all forms including armed struggle for the seizure of power and the establishment of non-racial democratic society for the South African people as a whole regardless of race, color or creed,

Recalling further the relevant resolutions adopted by the Organization of African Unity, the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations calling on the Pretoria regime to accord the Prisoner of War Status to all captured freedom fighters in compliance with the additional protocol to the Geneva Convention;

Outraged by the savage and criminal act of the cold-blooded murder committed on 9 June 1983 by the racist South African regime in hanging Thelle Simon Magoerane, Jerry Semano Mosololi and Caiphus Motaung, members of the ANC sentenced to death for their heroic role in the fight against the apartheid system, in contemptuous defiance of several resolutions adopted by the Organization of African Unity, the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council calling on the Pretoria regime to commute their death sentences,

Convinced that this cold-blooded murder committed by the apartheid regime on the eve of the 7th Anniversary of the Soweto massacre on 16 June 1983 will further aggravate the already explosive situation resulting from repeated acts of terrorism, assassinations and massacres carried out by this regime against the innocent blacks in South Africa and the neighboring countries,

Reaffirming that the policies and barbaric acts of internal repression and terrorism as well as destabilization and aggression perpetrated by the Pretoria regime against the independent Southern African States have resulted in the repeated breaches of the peace of the region or sub-continent, thus creating an extremely explosive situation in Southern Africa,

Outraged by the activities of certain Western Multinational Corporations which continue to collaborate with the apartheid regime especially in the economic, military, nuclear, petroleum and other fields as well as the financial institutions which grant loans to the apartheid regime in defiance of the OAU, the Non-Aligned movement and United Nations Resolutions,

Considering that the Reagan Administration’s policy of “constructive engagement” with the Pretoria regime has encouraged its intransigence and emboldened it to engage in more brutal acts of internal repression and brazen acts of external aggression against the independent Southern African States,

Noting with indignation that the apartheid regime has stepped up its criminal acts of internal repression, the murder of political detainees in prison and the assassination of ANC members and leaders, both in South Africa and in the neighboring countries, as well as destabilization and aggression against the Frontline States and Lesotho,

Noting with indignation that faced with the tide of resistance raging in South Africa the Pretoria regime has intensified its criminal policy of recruiting, training, equipping and deploying armed bandits to destabilize the legitimate governments of Lesotho, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Zambia in order to intimidate and blackmail these countries in the vain hope of coercing them to abandon their traditional support of the liberation struggle,

Noting with indignation the Pretoria regime’s policy of forced removals of millions of the African people being dumped in barren so-called Homelands deprived of South African citizenship and herded into vast concentration camps as displaced persons where they starve and die or provide semi-slave labor as the so-called migrant laborers,

Convinced that the sole obstacle to peace, security and stability in Southern Africa is the apartheid regime and its policies of internal repression, terrorism and political assassinations as well as destabilization and aggression against the Frontline States and Lesotho,

Convinced that notwithstanding its apparent military might and continued support from the Reagan Administration and certain other Western Countries the Pretoria regime’s inherent and proven vulnerability to armed struggle guarantees inevitable eradication of the apartheid system and establishment of a non-racial democratic society for all the people of South Africa regardless of race, color or creed,

Considering that the Pretoria regime has resorted to paying lucrative fees and inviting famous athletes and artists to play and perform in apartheid South Africa and its Bantustans for the purpose of promoting its inhuman polices and regarding access to international sports and cultural events,

1. Vehemently condemns the Pretoria regime for the cold-blooded murder of Thelle Simon Mogoerane, Jerry Semano Mosololi and Caiphus Thabo Motaung, the ANC members hanged on 9 June 1983, extends sincere condolences to their parents, proclaims them African heroes and pledges to increase moral, political and material support to their movement in order to help hasten the attainment of the goal they sacrificed their lives for;

2. Urges all Member States to observe every year the International Day of Solidarity with the Struggling People of South Africa on 16 June – the SOWETO Day when in 1976 over 2000 school children were killed in cold blood by the Pretoria regime whilst demonstrating against inferior education;

3. Strongly condemns the apartheid regime for the stepped-up internal repression, assassination of ANC members and leaders as well as the criminal acts of terrorism and massacres repeatedly carried out by the Pretoria regime against innocent South African refugees and nationals of the neighboring countries;

4. Declares that the Pretoria regime’s continued system of apartheid and acts of internal repression and terrorism as well as acts of destabilization and aggression against the Southern African independent states constitutes a threat to world peace and international security;

5. Urges the African Group at the United Nations to work towards the early convening of the Security Council for the purpose of strengthening the arms embargo and imposing comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against racist South Africa under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations;

6. Strongly condemns the Reagan Administration for its self-proclaimed alliance with the racist Pretoria regime, the violation of the arms embargo and policy of “constructive engagement” designed to rehabilitate the apartheid regime and isolate the National Liberation Movement in order to ensure the perpetuation of the apartheid system;

7. Reiterates its full and unswerving support for the struggle against the apartheid regime in all forms, especially the armed struggle for the seizure of power by the people of South Africa;

8. Commends the Frontline States and Lesotho for the courageous sacrifice they are making in resisting the policies of blackmail and intimidation pursued by the apartheid regime in order to coerce them to abandon their traditional position of giving moral and political support to the Liberation Movement of South Africa including the granting of political asylum of refugees backing apartheid repression;

9. Convinced that the sole obstacle to peace, security and stability in Southern Africa is the apartheid regime and its policies of internal repression, terrorism and political assassinations, as well as destabilization of and aggression against the Frontline States and Lesotho;

10. Condemns the policies of certain Western countries and Israel as well as the transnational corporations that continue to maintain or strengthen collaboration in the economic, military and nuclear fields with the Pretoria regime;

11. Commends certain individuals, anti-apartheid support groups, non­governmental organizations, parliamentarians and elected officials in the Western countries for their relentless and invaluable campaigns in opposition to their countries’ policies of collaboration with racist South Africa and in support of the liberation struggle;

12. Mandates the Secretary-General to work towards the strengthening and expanding of the OAU Secretariats in the major Western capitals and New York in order to render on-going assistance to the Liberation movements in their efforts to mobilize international support, especially in the US and Europe;

13. Urges Member States to organize regional, cultural and sporting events in order to invite and honor the famous athletes and artists who, in compliance with the Sports and Cultural boycott have turned down invitations to play or entertain in apartheid South Africa;

14. Commends the African National Congress, the vanguard of the National Liberation Movement of South Africa, for the continued intensification of the armed struggle and salutes the combatants of Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) who continue to register victories.

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Twentieth Ordinary Session, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 12-15 November 1984

DECLARATION ON SOUTHERN AFRICA28

1. A century has passed since the European powers met in Berlin to partition, and apportion to themselves, the Continent of Africa. At that meeting they decided which peoples of this Continent would be the subjects of which colonial power. For more than a hundred years our peoples have, therefore had a common task of removing the yoke of colonial domination and winning for themselves an independent place, and independent voice, in the world community

2. It is through struggle, sometimes bitter struggle, that progress has been made. There are now fifty-one (51) members of the Organization of African Unity, four hundred and eight million people of this Continent have now freed themselves from external rule. But the task is not yet complete. Political independence has been won by these peoples, but all the independent nations are still engaged in the struggle to give new meaning to Africa’s freedom, and to establish Africa’s place in world politics and culture, and in the international economy.

3. Yet Africa’s political struggle is not over. Some thirty million people are still subjected to racist minority and colonial rule in South Africa and Namibia. The racist rulers of South Africa see that country as a regional power, and their rule as dominant over the whole Southern African region. To maintain that power, and that minority rule, the racists rely upon the ever-increasing use of violence against the peoples of Southern Africa.

4. While this situation continues, no African can be really free. No independent African State can claim that its sovereignty and independence is assured. As a Continent, Africa is, therefore, still not in a position to assert Africa’s rightful place in the world system of international relations.

5. The total liberation of Africa, and especially the liberation of Namibia and South Africa, thus remains as an urgent and central objective for all the nations and peoples of Africa, both singly and collectively.

6. Africa’s united resolve to achieve total liberation stems from our peoples’ determination to assert the dignity of all people, everywhere, and to establish the right of Africa’s people to determine their own destiny. It is a commitment to the common humanity of mankind and Africa’s right both to contribute to, and to share in, the fruits of world development. The Organization of African Unity is the instrument we have created and are using to promote those goals.

7. The countries of South Africa and Namibia cannot be excluded from Africa’s commitment to its freedom and its own future. The struggle against apartheid, and the struggle for Namibian independence, is part of the total struggle for African freedom. These struggles, therefore, involve the interest of all African nations, and all Africa’s peoples. Africa’s responsibility to contribute to the successful prosecution of these struggles is inherent in Africa’s claim to the rights which belong to all men, and which are spelt out in the United Nations Charter and the Declaration of Human Rights.

8. It is in the interest of Africa’s enemies to divide and paralyze our Continent, and thus to make it incapable of giving meaningful support to the continuing struggle for liberation in Southern Africa. The OAU, at this Summit Meeting, recognizes these dangers, and recommits itself to unity, and to solidarity with the peoples of Southern Africa in a common quest for Africa’s total liberation.

9. The continued existence of apartheid, and of colonial domination of Namibia, provides both a heartland and a bridgehead for the forces which are opposed to the reality of Africa’s independence and to Africa’s declared intention to participate in world affairs on the basis of equality. If the dignity of one man is denied because he is Black, the dignity of all Black Peoples is denied. And if the dignity of Black Men is denied, the dignity of all men is denied; humanity is one, and the world is indivisible.

10. Africa’s interests and world interests, therefore, demand that apartheid be defeated and destroyed.

11. The apartheid system is inherently violent. It continues to repress the peoples’ legitimate aspirations to freedom, justice, equality and majority rule. It turns its people into foreigners in their own country. Through the policy of bantustanisation it divides the country and tries to destroy the unity of South African people.

12. The apartheid system in collusion with enemies of Africa foments and launches armed bandits into the countries of Southern Africa; the criminal and terrorist activities of the armed bandits constitute the main thrust of South African regional policy of destabilization.

13. The so-called internal reforms which have been widely challenged by the South African people and international community are nothing more than the denationalization of the Black majority in order to preserve apartheid.

14. With the support of some Western powers the apartheid regime is using the situation in the region to try to obtain an international respectability that is has never had. As long as racist South Africa maintains relations of domination over the Black People of South Africa and Namibia, it is impossible for the independent African States and the international community as a whole to cooperate with the apartheid rulers on the basis of equality and respect.

15. Some African countries inherited economic and communications links with South Africa from colonialism. Due to these legacies, such nations maintain relations with South Africa on the best terms which they can obtain at any one time. South Africa uses these relationships for political blackmail whenever this seems to South Africa to be an advantage for its cause.

16. Colonialism and racist minority domination cannot be reformed into systems which are consistent with the freedom and the aspirations of Africa. They must be ended. Alterations to the forms of the oppression, such as those proposed by South Africa from time to time for Namibia, and such as those seen recently implemented within South Africa, have been the single purpose of perpetuating and entrenching minority domination. They have been recognized as irrelevant by the people of Namibia, and rejected by the people of South Africa. They are rejected also by the Organization of African Unity.

17. It is in this context that the independent states of Southern Africa, both individually and collectively, have done and continue to do their utmost to uphold and promote the liberation objectives of the Organization of African Unity. Through co­operation among the Frontline States, and through SADCC, they are working at great cost to themselves to defend their independence and to reduce their economic dependence on the apartheid State. The contacts which their circumstances force them to maintain with South Africa cannot and should not be used by others as an excuse for establishing or expanding economic or political contact with the forces of racism in South Africa.

18. It is also this context that Africa is committed to resisting, and ultimately defeating, the efforts to force our countries into any relations with racist South Africa. We shall resist the economic, political and military pressures which are being used by South Africa and its friends to terrorise, intimidate, and blackmail individual African countries and to reduce still further their freedom of action.

19. Africa will be satisfied with nothing less than majority rule in an independent and united Namibia, and majority rule in a united, democratic and non-racial South Africa. The whole experience of Africa’s history, and of world history, confirms that only self-determination for the people of Namibia and South Africa can create for Southern Africa an opportunity for peace and stability or remove the threat to international peace and security which now emanates from this area.

20. The Organization of African Unity as a whole, and all our individual States, therefore, recognize a special responsibility to give the maximum possible support to the Independent States of Southern Africa as they struggle to defend their sovereignty and territorial integrity in the face of South African aggression, destabilization and subversion. We recognize that any reverses suffered in this part of Africa, as in any other, are reverses suffered by all of us, for they are used by the enemies of Africa’s freedom and dignity as new bridgeheads for compromising the independence of our Continent as a whole.

21. In their struggle to free their countries and their peoples from colonialism and racism, the Liberation Movements of Namibia and South Africa are leading the freedom struggles of the peoples of those countries and also working for the freedom of Africa as a whole. We recognize these movements as representative of their peoples, who deserve our full and unequivocal support.

22. In the light of the intransigence, ruthlessness, and consistent brutality of the apartheid regime, both within South Africa and Namibia, we uphold the right of the Liberation Movements and the people they lead to take up arms in pursuance of the struggle for freedom. We continue to express our preference for a peaceful resolution of the Namibian and South African questions as stated in the Lusaka Manifesto. But we are convinced that the peaceful negotiations can only succeed when the Pretoria regime had convincingly demonstrated its acceptance of both the principle and the inevitability of majority rule. One such demonstration would be the unconditional release of imprisoned Liberation Movement leaders, and the subsequent negotiation with the genuine representatives of the South African and Namibian peoples.

23. At this meeting of the Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity, we reaffirm our full support to the liberation forces of the Southern zone of our Continent. We reiterate our commitment to the struggle to secure the total isolation of the criminal apartheid regime of Pretoria, and the imposition of comprehensive mandatory sanctions against it.

24. We call upon the rest of the world to join us in this endeavor to achieve the total liberation of Africa and peace in our Continent.

RESOLUTION ON SOUTH AFRICA29

The Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in its Twentieth Ordinary Session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 12 – 15 November, 1984,

Having examined the 42nd report of the Co-ordination Committee for the Liberation of Africa,

Gravely concerned at the continuing deteriorating situation in Southern Africa, precipitated by the Pretoria regime’s escalating campaign of bloody repression and terror against the people of South Africa and their National Liberation Movement, as well as its continued mounting aggression, destabilization and subversion against the Frontline and other States in Southern Africa,

Outraged by the Pretoria regime’s mass murder of defenseless students and workers on strike and demonstrators protesting against slave wages, inferior education and deprivation of nationality of the indigenous African people, as well as the regime’s new constitution designed to break the unity of the black people and further entrench white minority rule and apartheid,

Indignant at the regime’s recent use of thousands of its fascist troops to besiege Sebokeng and other African townships to intimidate the African population as part of the terror campaign which has already claimed the lives of over 200 black South African patriots,

Recalling the communique of the Heads of State and Government of the Frontline States in April 1984 which inter alia appealed for active participation in the struggle against the Pretoria regime by all nations, organizations and institutions,

Concerned at the continuing collaboration with and active support extended to the Pretoria regime by certain Western countries, especially the United States of America through its policy of so-called constructive engagement,

Convinced that armed resistance is the most effective means of bringing the racist South African regime to come to terms with the hopes and aspirations of the black African majority in South Africa:

1. Strongly condemns racist South Africa for the mass murder of hundreds of defenseless students, workers and demonstrations engaged in the legitimate struggle against the apartheid system and for non-racial, democratic society in South Africa;

2. Strongly condemns the collaboration of certain Western countries with racist South Africa, especially the United States and Israel;

3. Equally strongly condemns the United States administration policy of constructive engagement with South Africa;

4. Reaffirms the legitimacy of the struggle waged by the National Liberation Movements in all forms, including armed struggle, for the seizure of power by the people;

5. Reaffirms that the question of the liberation of South Africa remains central among Africa’s concerns and therefore pledges the active pursuit by the OAU and its Member States of the objectives contained in this and previous resolutions of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the OAU;

6. Reaffirms its commitment and support of projects and campaigns undertaken by Governments and Non-governmental Organizations in co­operation with any National Liberation Movement recognized by the OAU;

7. Commends the heroic people of South Africa for their sustained militant opposition to their oppression and the National Liberation Movement of South Africa for their continued mobilization of the masses;

8. Urges the oppressed people led by their National Liberation Movement to intensify further their armed opposition to apartheid;

9. Once more commends the ANC for its continued intensification of the political and armed struggle against the apartheid regime;

10. Appeals to all OAU Member States to pay up their arrears in contributions to the Special Fund of the Liberation Committee and to increase their bilateral assistance to the National Liberation Movements recognized by OAU;

11. Urges the African Group at the UN to work towards the early convening of the Security Council to strengthen the arms embargo and to impose comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against the South Africa;

12. Calls on the International Community and all friendly countries to render concrete support and assistance for the Frontline and other neighboring states in the region to enable them to continue to resist the mounting aggression, subversion and economic blackmail of the Pretoria regime;

13. Calls on justice-loving countries and Non-governmental Organizations to step up the campaign for the unconditional release of Nelson Mandela and all other South African political prisoners as well as the granting of prisoner of war status to all captured freedom fighters, in keeping with the revised protocol of the Geneva Conventions.

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Twenty-second Ordinary Session, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 28-30 July 1986

STATEMENT OF CRITICAL SITUATION IN SOUTHERN AFRICA30

…..

5. In this regard, the Assembly of Heads of State and Government solidly supports the following demands of the Commonwealth contained in the Commonwealth Accord on Southern Africa which call on the racist regime in Pretoria to:
  1. Declare that the system of apartheid will be dismantled and specific and meaningful action taken in fulfilment of that intent;
  2. Terminate the existing state of emergency;
  3. Release immediately and unconditionally Nelson Mandela and all others imprisoned and detained for their opposition to apartheid;
  4. Establish political freedom and specifically lift the existing ban on the African National Congress and other political parties;
  5. Initiate in the context of a suspension of violence on all sides, a process of dialogue across lines of color, politics and religion, with a view to establishing a non-racial and representative government.

6. The Assembly of Heads of State and Government is further convinced that the intensified struggle for the freedom and justice by the people of South Africa and Namibia, assisted by the international community, will accelerate the realization of the goals of freedom and justice. In that context, the Frontline States appeal to the international community to coordinate action against apartheid and for the independence of Namibia. This calls for the following measures:

  1. Imposition of comprehensive and mandatory sanctions. Pending their imposition, appeal for the implementation of voluntary ones and a strict observance of existing ones. In this regard, appeal to African States singularly and collectively to take a serious and practical stand as opposed to mere militant rhetoric;
  2. Provision of material support and facilities, including training needed by the Liberation Movements to strengthen their fighting capabilities;
  3. Increasing financial assistance by establishing national solidarity funds for supporting Liberation Movements;
  4. Increasing awareness of the struggle for Liberation through the provision of maximum publicity to the cause of Liberation and provision of more broadcasting facilities for the Liberation Movements, as well as the observance of events of importance in the struggle such as: Sharpeville Day, Soweto Day, Namibia Week, etc.,
  5. Rejection of “Constructive engagement” and any attempt from whatever quarter to engage in any dialogue with the racist regime pending the initiation of a categorical and irreversible process of dismantling apartheid and withdrawal from Namibia;
  6. Condemnation of the policy of “linkage” or the introduction of any other issues extraneous to United Nations Security Council Resolution 435 of 197831 ;
  7. Provision of necessary resources to Frontline States to enhance their defence capacity;
  8. Mobilization of assistance for the Frontline and other neighboring States to enhance their capacity to withstand the effects of sabotage, economic blackmail and economic aggression by the racist regime,
  9. Mobilization of assistance for the Frontline and other neighboring States to enhance their capacity to withstand the effects of sanctions.

7. The Assembly reiterates its resolve to see peace, progress and stability achieved in Southern Africa.. It pledges to foster cooperation among the people of the region on the basis of freedom and justice.

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Twenty-third Ordinary Session, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 27-29 July 1987

DECLARATION ON SOUTHERN AFRICA32

We, the Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity meeting in our Twenty-third Ordinary Session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 27 to 29 July 1987,

Noting with grave concern that the situation in Southern Africa continues to deteriorate,

Having reviewed the exceedingly serious and volatile situation in Southern Africa resulting from the policies of state terrorism, military occupation, blackmail, and the armed bandits by the apartheid regime to destabilize, sabotage and destroy the economic and social infrastructure of the Frontline States and other countries neighboring it with the aim of weakening and subjugating them,

Recognizing, more than ever before, the urgent need for concerted international action, both short-term and long-term and to provide relief to the Frontline and other States in the region to enable them to withstand the effects of retaliatory sanctions, aggression and destabilization by the South African regime,

1. Observe with serious concern that the Peoples of South Africa and Namibia are subjected to extreme repression and those who fight for liberation become victims of assassination by secret murder squads. Tens of thousands are arrested, detained and tortured and that those South Africans and Namibians, granted refuge in the neighbouring States, are themselves daily targets of this campaign of terrorism and murder;

2. Note with extreme indignation that during and since the racist Whites-only elections of May 6, 1987, the Frontline States have been subjected to intensified and wanton acts of aggression and destabilization carried out both by the Pretoria army and its surrogate bandit forces. They vehemently condemn the barbaric massacre of 400 innocent women, children and elderly at Homoine in Mozambique by the South Africa sponsored and backed armed bandits which exemplifies the barbaric nature of this criminal policy;

3. Condemn positioning by the racist regime of thousands of its soldiers and large quantities of war material on the border between Angola and the occupied territory of Namibia with the objective of assisting the armed UNITA bandits to carry out acts of terrorism against the Angolan people and to establish a zone of military occupation within the territory of Angola;

4. Express our satisfaction with the important measures taken by the Nordic and some Western countries to come to the assistance of the peoples of Southern Africa by imposing sanctions against the Pretoria regime, aiding the liberation movements, and extending economic assistance to the Frontline and SADCC countries;

5. Feel extremely perturbed that the major Western powers continue to aid and abet the Pretoria regime contrary to the wishes and demands of the people of South Africa, Namibia, the region as a whole and the international community;

6. Reject the imposition of unacceptable conditions by the Senate of the United States of America on possible aid to the Frontline and SADCC countries and strongly abhor the attempt by the Senate of the United States of America to associate SADCC with terrorism;

7. Warmly salute the gallant peoples of Southern Africa who, despite all odds, are fighting resolutely to bring about the total liberation of Africa. In this connection we uphold their right to struggle by all means at their disposal – including armed struggle - to achieve their liberation. We reaffirm the unwavering commitment of the OAU to the struggle to eliminate this last vestige of colonialism and White minority domination in our continent;

8. Support the immediate creation of a Pan-African Association of Writers as a valuable contribution to the mobilization of African and world public opinion in the struggle against apartheid;

9. Call upon Member States of our Organization which have not yet created national committees against apartheid to do so and encourage the creation of a Pan-African Association of these national committees.

10. Commit ourselves by common consent to promote specific measures to dismantle apartheid which is the major cause of violence and instability in the region.

NAMIBIA

11. Condemn the so-called provisional government in Namibia and urge the international community to continue to reject it;

12. Reaffirm once again that United Nations Security Council Resolution 435 (1978) is the only acceptable basis for the peaceful settlement of the Namibian question. In this connection, we vehemently reject and condemn the so-called linkage as an attempt designed to perpetuate the illegal rule of South Africa over Namibia;

13. Urge the United Nations Secretary-General to continue his efforts towards the speedy implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 435 (1978);

14. Must in this respect intensify with immediate effect our diplomatic efforts with a view to breaking the impasse created by the “linkage” policy;

15. Commit ourselves to continue our assistance to SWAPO, the sole and authentic representative of the People of Namibia;

SOUTH AFRICA

16. Reaffirm our decision and conviction that the imposition of comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against South Africa in accordance with Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations remains the only peaceful option for abolishing the apartheid system in its entirety. We call for the early convening of the United Nations Security Council to impose comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against South Africa under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations.

17. Urge bearing in mind the special problems of Frontline States in this regard, all Member States of our Organization to set an example to the rest of the world by strictly applying (sanctions) against South Africa;

18. Commend in the meantime for urgent implementation by those who have not already done so, the following measures:

  1. imposition of trade sanctions;
  2. prohibition of transfer of technology to South Africa;
  3. cessation of export, sale or transport of oil and oil products to South Africa and of any cooperation with South Africa’s oil industry;
  4. cessation of further investments in and financial loans to South Africa or Namibia and of any governmental insurance guarantee of credits to the racist regime;
  5. an end to all promotion of or support for trade with South Africa including governmental assistance to trade missions;
  6. prohibition of the sale of krugerrands and any other coins minted in South Africa;
  7. prohibition of imports from South Africa of agricultural products, coal, uranium, iron and steel;
  8. enactment of legislation or adoption of other measures to comply with United Nations Decree No. I for the Protection of the Natural Resources of Namibia enacted by the United Nations Council for Namibia in 1974;
  9. termination of any visa-free entry privileges and the promotion of tourism to South Africa;
  10. termination of air and shipping links with South Africa;
  11. cessation of all academic, cultural, scientific and sports relations with South Africa and of relations with individuals, institutions and other bodies endorsing or based on apartheid;
  12. suspension or abrogation of agreements with South Africa such as agreements on cultural and scientific cooperation;
  13. the termination of Double Taxation Agreements with South Africa;
  14. a ban on government contracts with majority-owned South African companies.

19. Reaffirm our conviction that peaceful negotiations can only succeed when the Pretoria regime has convincingly and in practice demonstrated its acceptance of both the principle and the inevitability of majority rule;

20. Recognize the right of the struggling people of South Africa to decide when and under what conditions to enter into such negotiations;

21. Remain convinced that no meaningful negotiations can take place until all political prisoners are released and bans on all organizations are lifted to enable them to consult their people freely;

22. Further urge all non-governmental organizations to participate actively in the information campaign to sensitize international public opinion on the realities of apartheid;

23. Commit ourselves to increasing material and financial assistance to the oppressed and struggling people of South Africa through their national liberation movements to enable them to step up their struggle against apartheid and for the establishment of non-racial and representative government in south Africa.

FRONTLINE STATES

24. Appreciate the efforts and sacrifices of the Frontline States in the liberation struggle. In this regard we commit ourselves to:

  1. provision of necessary resources to Frontline States to enhance their defence capacity;
  2. mobilization of assistance for the Frontline and other neighboring States to enhance their capacity;
  3. mobilization of assistance for the Frontline and other neighboring States to enhance their capacity to withstand the effects of sanctions.

25. Condemn all manoeuvres from any aimed at legitimizing terrorist groups, established and led by the racist regime and which are responsible for massacres, assassinations and other acts of violence perpetrated against defenseless people in Angola and Mozambique;

26. Urge all countries, particularly African countries, to deny the armed bandits in the pay of apartheid South Africa, all logistics, accommodation, movement and other facilities on their territories;

27. Congratulate the members of the Mission to Lisbon undertaken jointly by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique and Sao Tome and Principe on their efforts made to convince the Portuguese Authorities of the need not to allow the armed bandits to use their territory as a launching pad for attacks against Angola and Mozambique, and TAKE NOTE of the encouraging reaction of the Portuguese Authorities;

28. Call upon all African member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) to ensure their active participation at the General Conference due to take place in Vienna in September, 1987, with a view to ratifying the decision taken by the Council of Governors aimed at depriving South Africa of its rights and privileges as a member of the Agency;

29. Note with satisfaction the establishment of the solidarity Africa Fund of the Non-aligned Movement and RENEW our call to Member States of our Organization and to the international community to contribute generously to the Fund.

Meeting of the Ad Hoc Committee on Southern Africa of the Organization of African Unity, Harare, Zimbabwe, 21 August 1989

DECLARATION ON THE QUESTION OF SOUTH AFRICA (AND PROGRAMME OF ACTION)33

I. PREAMBLE

The people of Africa, singly, collectively and acting through the Organization of African Unity (OAU), are engaged in serious efforts to establish peace throughout the continent by ending all conflicts through negotiations based on the principle of justice and peace for all.

We affirm our conviction, which history confirms, that where colonial, racial and apartheid domination exist, there can neither be peace nor justice.

Accordingly, we reiterate that while the apartheid system in South Africa persists, the peoples of our continent as a whole cannot achieve the fundamental objectives of justice, human dignity and peace, which are both crucial in themselves and fundamental to the stability and development of Africa.

With regard to the region of southern Africa, the entire continent is vitally interested that the processes in which it is involved, leading to the complete and genuine independence of Namibia, as well as peace in Angola and Mozambique, should succeed in the shortest possible time. Equally, Africa is deeply concerned that the destabilization of all the countries in the region by South Africa, whether through direct aggression, sponsorship of surrogates, economic subversion and other means, should end immediately.

We recognize the reality that permanent peace and stability in southern Africa can only be achieved when the system of apartheid in South Africa has been liquidated and South Africa has been transformed into a united, democratic and non-racial country. We therefore reiterate that all the necessary measures should be adopted now, to bring a speedy end to the apartheid system, in the interest of all the people of southern Africa, our continent and the world at large.

We believe that, as a result of the liberation struggle and international pressure against apartheid, as well as global efforts to liquidate regional conflicts, possibilities exist for further movement towards the resolution of the problems facing the people of South Africa. For these possibilities to lead to fundamental change in South Africa, the Pretoria regime must abandon its abhorrent concepts and practices of racial domination and its record of failure to honour agreements, all of which have already resulted in the loss of so many lives and the destruction of much property in the countries of southern Africa.

We reaffirm our recognition of the right of all peoples, including those of South Africa, to determine their own destiny, and to work out for themselves the institutions and the system of government under which they will, by general consent, live and work together to build a harmonious society. OAU remains committed to do everything possible and necessary to assist the people of South Africa, in such ways as the representatives of the oppressed may determine, to achieve this objective. We are certain that, arising from its duty to help end the criminal apartheid system, the rest of the world community is ready to extend similar assistance to the people of South Africa.

We make these commitments because we believe that all people are equal and have equal rights to human dignity and respect, regardless of colour, race, sex or creed. We believe that all men and women have the right and duty to participate in their own government, as equal members of society. No individual or group of individuals has any right to govern others without their consent. The apartheid system violates all these fundamental and universal principles. Correctly characterized as a crime against humanity, it is responsible for the death of countless numbers of people in South Africa. It has sought to dehumanize entire peoples. It has imposed a brutal war on the whole region of southern Africa, resulting in untold loss of life, destruction of property and massive displacement of innocent men, women and children. This scourge and affront to humanity must be fought and eradicated in its totality.

We have therefore supported and continue to support all those in South Africa who pursue this noble objective through political, armed and other forms of struggle. We believe this to be our duty, carried out in the interest of all humanity.

While extending this support to those who strive for a non-racial and democratic society in South Africa, a point on which no compromise is possible, we have repeatedly expressed our preference for a solution arrived at by peaceful means. We know that the majority of the people of South Africa and their liberation movement who have been compelled to take up arms have also upheld this position for many decades and continue to do so.

The positions contained in this Declaration are consistent with and are a continuation of those elaborated in the Lusaka Manifesto two decades ago. They take into account the changes that have taken place in southern Africa since that Manifesto was adopted by OAU and by the rest of the international community. They constitute a new challenge to the Pretoria regime to join in the noble effort to end the apartheid system, an objective to which OAU has been committed from its very birth.

Consequently, we shall continue to do everything in our power to help intensify the liberation struggle and international pressure against the system of apartheid until this system is ended and South Africa is transformed into a united, democratic and non-racial country, with justice and security for all its citizens.

In keeping with this solemn resolve, and responding directly to the wishes of the representatives of the majority of the people of South Africa, we publicly pledge ourselves to the positions contained hereunder. We are convinced that their implementation will lead to a speedy end of the apartheid system and therefore to the opening of a new dawn of peace for all the peoples of Africa, in which racism, colonial domination and white minority rule on our continent would be abolished forever.

II. STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES

We believe that a conjuncture of circumstances exists which, if there is a demonstrable readiness on the part of the Pretoria regime to engage in negotiations genuinely and seriously, could create the possibility to end apartheid through negotiations. Such an eventuality would be an expression of the long-standing preference of the majority of the people of South Africa to arrive at a political settlement.

We would therefore encourage the people of South Africa, as part of their overall struggle, to get together to negotiate an end to the apartheid system and agree on all the measures that are necessary to transform their country into a non-racial democracy. We support the position held by the majority of the people of South Africa that these objectives, and not the amendment or reform of the apartheid system, should be the aims of the negotiations.

We are at one with them that the outcome of such a process should be a new constitutional order based on the following principles, among others:

  1. South Africa shall become a united, democratic and non-racial State;
  2. All its people shall enjoy common and equal citizenship and nationality, regardless of race, colour, sex or creed;
  3. All its people shall have the right to participate in the government and administration of the country on the basis of a universal suffrage, exercised through the one-person, one-vote system, under a common voters` roll;
  4. All shall have the right to form and join any political party of their choice, provided that this is not in furtherance of racism;
  5. All shall enjoy universally recognized human rights, freedoms and civil liberties, protected under an entrenched Bill of Rights;
  6. South Africa shall have a new legal system which shall guarantee equality of all before the law;
  7. South Africa shall have an independent and non-racial judiciary;
  8. There shall be created an economic order which shall promote and advance the well-being of all South Africans;
  9. A democratic South Africa shall respect the rights, sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries and pursue a policy of peace, friendship, and mutually beneficial co-operation with all peoples.

We believe that agreement on the above principles shall constitute the foundation for an internationally acceptable solution which shall enable South Africa to take its rightful place as an equal partner among the African and world community of nations.

III. CLIMATE FOR NEGOTIATIONS

Together with the rest of the world, we believe that it is essential before any negotiations can take place, that the necessary climate for negotiations be created. The apartheid regime has the urgent responsibility to respond positively to this universally acclaimed demand and thus create this climate.

Accordingly, the present regime should, at the very least:

  1. Release all political prisoners and detainees unconditionally and refrain from imposing any restrictions on them;
  2. Lift all bans and restrictions on all proscribed and restricted organizations and persons;
  3. Remove all troops from the townships;
  4. End the state of emergency and repeal all legislation, such as and including the Internal Security Act, designed to circumscribe political activity; and,
  5. Cease all political trials and political executions.

These measures are necessary to produce the conditions in which free political discussion can take place - an essential condition to ensure that the people themselves participate in the process of remaking their country. The measures listed above should therefore precede negotiations.

IV. GUIDELINES TO THE PROCESS OF NEGOTIATION

We support the view of the South African liberation movement that upon the creation of this climate, the process of negotiations should commence along the following lines:

  1. Discussions should take place between the liberation movement and the South African regime to achieve the suspension of hostilities on both sides by agreeing to a mutually binding cease-fire;
  2. Negotiations should then proceed to establish the basis for the adoption of a new constitution by agreeing on, among others, the principles enunciated above;
  3. Having agreed to these principles, the parties should then negotiate the necessary mechanism for drawing up the new constitution;
  4. The parties shall define and agree on the role to be played by the international community in ensuring a successful transition to a democratic order;
  5. The parties shall agree on the formation of an interim Government to supervise the process of the drawing up and adoption of a new constitution, govern and administer the country, as well as effect the transition to a democratic order, including the holding of elections.

After the adoption of the new constitution, all armed hostilities will be deemed to have formally terminated.

For its part, the international community would lift the sanctions that have been imposed against apartheid South Africa.

The new South Africa shall qualify for membership of OAU.

V. PROGRAMME OF ACTION

In pursuance of the objectives stated in this document, OAU hereby commits itself:

  1. To inform Governments and intergovernmental organizations throughout the world, including the Movement of Non-aligned Countries, the United Nations General Assembly, the Security Council, the Commonwealth and others of these perspectives, and solicit their support;
  2. To mandate the OAU Ad Hoc Committee on Southern Africa, acting as the representative of OAU and assisted by the front-line States, to remain seized of the issue of a political resolution of the South African question;
  3. To step up all-round support for the South African liberation movement and campaign in the rest of the world in pursuance of this objective;
  4. To intensify the campaign for mandatory and comprehensive sanctions against apartheid South Africa: in this regard, immediately mobilize against the rescheduling of Pretoria`s foreign debt; work for the imposition of a mandatory oil embargo; and the full observance by all countries of the arms embargo;
  5. To ensure that the African continent does not relax existing measures for the total isolation of apartheid South Africa;
  6. To continue to monitor the situation in Namibia and extend all necessary support to the South West Africa People`s Organization (SWAPO) in its struggle for a genuinely independent Namibia;
  7. To extend such assistance as the Governments of Angola and Mozambique may request in order to secure peace for their peoples;
  8. To render all possible assistance to the front-line States to enable them to withstand Pretoria`s campaign of aggression and destabilization and enable them to continue to give their all-round support to the people of Namibia and South Africa.

We appeal to all people of good will throughout the world to support this programme of action as a necessary measure to secure the earliest liquidation of the apartheid system and the transformation of South Africa into a united, democratic and non-racial country.

Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Twenty-seventh Ordinary Session, Abuja, Nigeria, 3-5 June 1991

ABUJA DECLARATION ON SOUTH AFRICA, 5 JUNE 199134

1. From its foundation, the Organization of African Unity (OAU), acting in support of the people of South Africa, led by their national liberation movements, has been engaged in the struggle to end apartheid - a crime against humanity.

2. As long as apartheid persists, it continues to be a grave affront to all peoples, in particular those of Africa and the black diaspora, who have been victims of slavery, colonialism and racialism.

3. It has taken the lives of many people, both in South Africa and other countries of southern Africa, destroyed means of livelihood for millions, dehumanized and degraded entire peoples.

4. Because of all this and more, it has posed a challenge to all people of conscience to act in a manner consistent with love of freedom and understanding of the importance of the principle that all persons are born equal.

5. As we meet at Abuja, Nigeria, we are inspired with renewed confidence that, as a result of the struggles that have been waged by the people of South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world, the scourge of apartheid will soon be a thing of the past.

6. This outcome, for which millions of people on our continent and the rest of the world have striven, will make a decisive contribution to the universal effort to end racial oppression and prejudice, wherever they may occur, and to assert the dignity of every human being, regardless of colour, race or gender.

7. Coming at this time in the history of Africa, the liquidation of the system of apartheid will be an important signal of the commitment of our continent to its renewal as a zone of freedom, respect for human and people’s rights, justice, prosperity, peace and stability.

8. As part of that commitment, we reiterate our long-held preference for the transformation of South Africa into a united, democratic and non-racial country by peaceful means.

9. We reaffirm our conviction that implementation of the provisions contained in the Harare Declaration of 21 August 1989 and the Declaration on Apartheid and its Destructive Consequences in Southern Africa, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its sixteenth special session on 14 December 1989, would lead to such a peaceful resolution of the South African question.

10. The people of South Africa have an urgent need to live together in conditions of justice, peace, prosperity and friendship among themselves. We believe that to achieve this, the steps visualized in these declarations should be carried out expeditiously.

11. The very success of the future process of reconstruction requires that South Africa proceed as quickly as possible to transform itself into a non-racial democracy.

12. This is also imperative for the future of all the countries in the region of southern Africa to enable them to cooperate among themselves as equals for the upliftment of all their peoples.

13. We are also convinced that a liberated South Africa will make an important contribution to the critical efforts of the peoples of Africa to create a political and social order that will guarantee all the peoples of our continent human rights, peace, security, stability and development.

14. For all these reasons, it is vital that we, the peoples of Africa, continue to wage a united struggle against apartheid and to persist in our support for the South African liberation movements until the abhorrent system of racist, white minority domination is totally abolished.

15. Accordingly, we reaffirm our support for the constitutional principles contained in the Harare and United Nations declarations, which provide the basis for the transformation of South Africa into a non-racial democracy and which once implemented, would make for an internationally acceptable solution of the South Africa question.

16. We urge the people of South Africa and all their political parties and organizations to accept these principles, to abandon all notions of racial and ethnic fragmentation of the population, so as to establish the conditions for speedy movement forward, towards the adoption of a democratic constitution.

17. To create the climate conducive to negotiations, we call upon the South African Government to implement all the preconditions stipulated in the Harare and United Nations consensus declarations on South Africa and the agreements it has entered into under the Groote Schuur and Pretoria Minutes and to desist from any further resort to delaying tactics.

18. We are also gravely concerned at the current organized and orchestrated violence that has already claimed the lives of too many Black people. This violence has itself emerged as a major obstacle to the process of negotiations.

19. We demand that the South African Government act immediately to end this violence and enter into firm public commitments to do everything in its power to protect the lives and property of all the people of South Africa.

20. We also urge all political and other public organizations to stop fratricidal conflict that could delay the process towards the elimination of apartheid; and to agree to and abide by a code of conduct aimed at ending all violence among their members and supporters.

21. We wish to impress on the South African liberation movements the strategic importance of the unity of all anti-apartheid forces in the continuing struggle to liberate their country. We commend the decisions and steps that have been taken in this regard and urge them to pursue this objective with all necessary vigour. On our part, we stand ready to assist the democratic forces of South Africa to achieve this unity.

22. We acknowledge that there have been some positive developments in South Africa. Accordingly, we encourage the South African Government to pursue its efforts and to take further measures to accelerate the process for the elimination of apartheid. However, the preconditions set out in the Harare and United Nations consensus declarations and the Groote Schuur and Pretoria Minutes have not been fully met. In these circumstances all sanctions must remain in place. We further reaffirm the decisive importance of sanctions in moving South Africa forward towards a non-racial democracy and are convinced that it will be necessary to continue to use this form of pressure until the system of apartheid has been ended.

23. Bearing in mind the positive developments made so far inside South Africa and the general international reaction thereto, we mandate the current Chairman of OAU, in consultation with the front-line States and the national liberation movements, and, within the framework of the OAU Ad Hoc Committee of Heads of State and Government on Southern Africa, to continue to monitor and review the situation in South Africa, taking into account concrete steps undertaken by South Africa to remove all obstacles to genuine negotiations as stipulated in the Harare and the United Nations consensus declarations, as well as putting an immediate end to the ongoing violence.

24. Should the South African Government adopt measures that lead to positive, profound and irreversible changes towards the abolition of apartheid, we commit ourselves to review the question of sanctions with a view to readmitting South Africa into the international community.

25. We reiterate our support for the South African liberation movements and other democratic forces that have been in the forefront of the struggle to abolish the system of apartheid.

26. Accordingly, we commit ourselves to continue to provide these fighters against apartheid for a democratic South Africa with the necessary financial and material assistance to enable them to carry out their historic mission of liberating their country.

27. Let all the peoples of the world reaffirm their resolve to act in concert to assist the people of South Africa to regain their liberty without further delay. Let all our actions be guided by this noble objective, knowing that our own freedom will remain circumscribed as long as the people of South Africa are not free, and, knowing that our own actions can make a decisive contribution to the speed with which the final liquidation of the system of white minority rule on our continent is achieved. Let all of us walk the last mile together and, together, arrive at the common destination of the liquidation of the system of apartheid as well as the transformation of South Africa into a non-racial democracy.

Footnotes

  1. Because of opposition by African, Asian and other members of the Commonwealth, the South African government withdrew its application to remain in the Commonwealth after the proclamation of a Republic in May 1961, and ceased to be a member of the Commonwealth.
  2. Article 41 of the Charter of the United Nations provides for non-military measures, such as sanctions.
  3. The Conference decided on the establishment of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and approved the Charter of the OAU. It also decided to establish the African Liberation Committee. The Liberation Committee began work soon after the Summit Conference, while the OAU was established later in the year when the Charter was ratified by the required number of states.
  4. The Special Committee presented its first interim report on May 6, 1963, document A/5418-S/5310.
  5. In resolution 1761 (XVII), the General Assembly requested member States to impose sanctions against South Africa in order to bring about the abandonment of apartheid.
  6. AHG/Res.5(I)
  7. On the initiative of the four Foreign Ministers and the African members of the Security Council, the Council met in August and November-December 1963, and June 1964. It adopted resolutions calling on States to impose an arms embargo against South Africa, requesting the Secretary-General to establish an education programme for South Africans, calling for the release of political prisoners in South Africa, establishing an expert committee to consider the feasibility of sanctions etc.
  8. AHG/Res. 6 (I)
  9. AHG/Res. 34 (II)
  10. The Manifesto, known as the Lusaka Manifesto, was endorsed by the OAU and the Non-aligned Movement, and commended by the United Nations.
  11. The declaration was an assertion of the African position in response to overtures by the South African government and support for a dialogue with South Africa by a few African governments. It was adopted by 28 votes to 6, with 5 abstentions.
  12. CM/Res.270 (XIX).
    In another resolution adopted at the same session - CM/Res.272 (XII) - the Council of Ministers called upon Member States of the OAU "to take the necessary steps to deny landing and other facilities to aircraft proceeding to or coming from South Africa or Rhodesia." Both resolutions were endorsed by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the OAU which met in Rabat immediately after the session of the Council of Ministers.
  13. The extraordinary session was convened because détente with African States proposed by the Prime Minister of the apartheid regime, B. J. Vorster, after the collapse of the Portuguese empire, tended to cause some confusion in Africa. The session was intended to formulate a common African position.
  14. AHG/Res. 80 (XIII)
  15. CM/Res. 547 (XXIX)
  16. CM/Res. 552 (XXIX)
  17. CM/Res. 553 (XXIX)
  18. CM/Res. 554 (XXIX)
  19. CM/Res. 585 (XXIX). This resolution amended operative paragraph 4 of resolution CM/526 (XXVITI) adopted in February 1977 in Lome, Togo, by the Twenty-eighth Ordinary Session of the Council of Ministers of the Organization of African Unity. The full text of resolution CM/526 (XXVIII), as amended, is reproduced here.
  20. CM/Res. 590 (XXIX)
  21. CM/Res. 591 (XXIX)
  22. AHG/Res.87 (XV)
  23. CM/Res.718 (XXXIII)
  24. CM/Res. 731 (XXXIII)
  25. CM/Res.731 (XXXIII)
  26. AHG/Res. 111 (XIX)
  27. AHG/Res.112 (XIX)
  28. AHG/Decl.1 (XX)
  29. AHG/Res. 124 (XX)
  30. AHG/St.5 (XXII). Paragraphs 1-4 are missing in the source and will be inserted when found
  31. Resolution on the plan for the independence of Namibia
  32. AHG/Decl. 2 (XXIII)
  33. The Ad Hoc Committee, consisting of the Heads of State or Government of several countries, especially frontline States, met on the suggestion of the African National Congress and adopted this declaration on negotiations for the establishment of a non-racial and democratic South Africa. The declaration was endorsed by the Non-aligned Movement at its Ninth Conference in Belgrade, September 4-7, 1989. It formed the basis of the “Declaration on Apartheid and its Destructive Consequences in Southern Africa” adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 14, 1989.
  34. AHG/Decl.4 (XXVII
  35. CM/Res. 422(XXV)
  36. CM/RES. 428 (XXV)